MM 3320 : Report Mass Spectrometry Submitted by Velu K R NA12B033 Introduction Mass Spectroscopy is an instrumental method for identifying the chemical constitution of a substance by means of the separation of gaseous ions according to their differing mass and charge. This method helps identify the amount and type of chemicals present
Photoluminescence emission analysis (PL) has been primarily employed to investigate the optical properties, oxygen vacancy, migration and capture of photo-induced carriers in the semiconducting Ni/Ti LDH (Fig. 6). It is known that PL emissions of semiconductors are broadly divided into two categories: the band–band PL emission belonging to the electronic transitions from the conduction band (CB) bottom to the valence band (VB) top, and the excitonic PL emissions resulting from the surface oxygen vacancies and defects of semiconductors. For band–band PL emission, the lower the PL intensity, the higher the separation rate of photo-induced electron (eCB−)-hole (hVB+) pair and higher is its photo-induced activity.8, 27, 30 In case of excitonic
3 represents the TEM (CENTRA 100, Zeiss) images of ZP and ZPFe. The TEM images of ZPFe, Fig 3a and 3b (different magnification), show that the ZPFe retains the original morphology of the ZP, and a size of ~ 150 nm with clear crystal habit was observed. They show nanoparticles, which are on the smooth surface of the ZP with different sizes. The observable existence of metallic crystal nanoparticle indicates that agglomeration of iron deposited on the surface of the ZP. Almost the same observations were reported for zinc and cerium zirconium phosphate earlier [34,
Similarly as the atomic radius, the ionization energy follows a trend on the periodic table of elements. Ionization energy increases as you go from left to right of an element’s period. This is mainly due to the fact that the atomic radius generally decreases when you move across the element’s period, therefore there is a greater effective attraction between the negatively charged electrons and positively-charged nucleus. The ionization energy of a nitrogen is calculated as 1400
Dental X-Ray Image Analysis by Using Image Processing Techniques Qno.1. Identify the tools and technologies used in the paper. Elaborate or give details of all the tools used in the paper. In this paper author focused on to detect dental Caries. It is diseases that should be occurs in to teeth, so author used different digital image processing tools and techniques such as, Dental X-Rays, Image Processing, Image Segmentation and Binarization these all of defined and elaborate Below.
The purpose of this lab was to implement the use of a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) to examine and analyze metal samples that were subject to different failure tests. These failure tests included tensile tests, impact tests, and fatigue tests. SEM’s are useful because they provide a 3D view of the surface of the material, which improves the ability to examine the failure type at a microscopic level. In addition to this, the resolving power of a SEM is much stronger than that of a standard microscope, which enables the user to obtain much more detailed images of the samples. The experiment was performed by analyzing failure tested samples that were prepared before the experiment.
Refraction: Refraction occurs when light enters a more or less optically dense medium, which therefore has a different refractive index (measure of the velocity light can travel at in the medium compared to in a vacuum in which it can travel at 2.9 x 108ms-1). This causes the light’s speed to increase or decrease, which results in the rays bending towards or away from the normal, so the position of the image formed is dependent on the refractive indices of the two media. For refraction to occur, the light rays have to hit the boundary between media at an angle to the normal (which is 90 degrees to the boundary), otherwise no change in direction will occur, only a change in velocity. Therefore, if the light rays hit the boundary between the different media at a perpendicular (90 degree) angle, they will continue to go straight. This occurs because the angle at which the rays hit the boundary (called the angle of incidence) determines the angle at which the rays will refract (called the angle of refraction).
The second aim was to establish a methodology, using microscopy and other techniques under near-ideal conditions, which other institutions could adopt and adapt for their own investigations. Material for the electron microscopy were pieces of tissue approximately 5 millimetres in length were taken from areas adjacent from to those removed in a histological examination, with ultrathin sections cut and stained with uranyl acetate and lead citrate, and then examined under an optical microscope, a TEM and a SEM
It is a technique that excludes the use of solvent. SPME comprise of a fiber that are coated with either a liquid, solid or solid along with liquid. This coated fiber is use to concentrate the various kind of analytes from distinct media. After the extraction process, the targeted analytes can be separated and quantified by introducing the fibers into the analytical instrument. The instruments used can be Mass Spectrometry or Gas chromatography.
The ionization initiates a momentary avalanche of electrons accelerate by the high voltage potential used to power the Geiger counter tube. This avalanche, create a momentary conductive path between the wire at the center of the tube (Anode) and the wall of the tube (Cathode), resulting in a ‘click’ sound. By measuring the number of the clicks, the instrument indicates the radiation levels. (2) Radiation (dark blue) is moving randomly outside the detector tube. Some of the radiation enters the window (gray) at the end of the tube.