Fig. 1: Schematic representations of existing and the proposed SL-IVUS probes. Courtesy of Degertekin, Hesler, & Karaman (2011:[n.p.]). The mechanical type IVUS transducer is demonstrated in figure 2. This type of transducer makes use of rotating ultrasound sources.
Elemental mapping over the selected regions of the CdS NPs was conducted by Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The UV–visible diffuse reflectance spectra (UV-vis DRS) were obtained on the spectrophotometer of Shimadzu UV-3600 equipped with an integrating sphere accessory (BaSO4 was used as a reference). Fluorescence spectra were recorded on a Shimadzu RF-5301PC spectrofluorometer. The FT-IR spectra were recorded on a Shimadzu spectrophotometer. The powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis was made with an X’pert Pro diffractometer.
The mass analyzer sorts the ions by their mass to charge ratio. The detector measures the value of an indicator quantity and thus provides data for calculating the abundances of each ion. Some detectors are capable of diving spatial information, for example a multichannel plate detector gives spatial information Principle Mass spectroscopy is performed using a mass spectrometer. Mass
Abstract The purpose of carrying out this experiment was to investigate the phenomenon of Newtons’s Rings, to gain a better understanding of the theory Newton developed as well as to calculate the radius of curvature of a plano-convex lens and the thickness of a section of optical fibre. The effect is named after Isaac Newton who first studied it in 1717. The pattern observed appears as a series of concentric bright and dark fringes, which has its centre at the point of contact between two surfaces. The experiment was conducted by allowing monochromatic light from a sodium lamp, which is a monochromatic source, to fall normally onto the plano-convex lens. The light underwent reflection and refraction and was observed by a travelling microscope.
The radiation is detected by a special camera, and then the image is produced. (Cain, 2013) NM is used to treat and diagnose diseases by looking to the physiology of the body (Understanding nuclear medicine, 2009). NM includes Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT), Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scans, cardiovascular imaging and bone scanning (Morgan, 2012). 2. What
Diagnostic imaging techniques such as MRI and X-ray scans are both use in medical/clinical settings to help doctors with their diagnosis of a patient 's body. By using these techniques, a more accurate diagnosis of a potential or present injury/ illness of a person can be understood and can be visually determined. With that being said one major difference in the way that the two techniques obtain their images is the use of radiation. In an X-ray scan the use of gamma radiation helps with being able to obtain an image of an internal structure of the body. Whilst an MRI scan will use magnetic radiation to achieve the same goal.
One of the most known theories that explain the mechanism of accommodation is the theory of Hermann Helmholtz which was introduced in 1855. According to his theory, light refraction, getting on a retina, is carried out through a crystalline lens. It is composed of fibers. It depends on it what subject will be visible legibly. Not only the crystalline lens, but also radial and circular muscles regulate a crystalline lens tension.
This report is mainly addressed to physicians and physicist who engaged in activities regarding medical radiology. This also includes medical diagnostic, nuclear medicine, dentistry, and radiotherapy. In ICRP publication 60, it is recommended by the Commission that the use of dose constraints for common diagnostic procedure application should be reviewed. It should be flexibly applied in order to allow higher doses. In publication 73, the Commission separates the diagnostic reference level concept from dose constraint concept and is discussed further.
While there are numerous examples of echocardiogram, TTE is the one patients frequently undergo (NIH, 2011), to investigate symptoms like chest pains, or to ensure that they are in good health. The basis of ultrasonic imaging is, fundamentally, the first conceptualization of the idea of how humans hear, where sound travels in waves and is transmitted through mediums (Woo, J., n.d.). Building on this concept, there was greater understanding of ultrasound and a definition of ultrasound arose, defining ultrasound to be the the frequencies that occupy a band that is above the hearing range of human beings (Nave, C., 2012). Building on the concept of a sound wave that is of an extremely high frequency, and that objects reflect sound
Since its introduction, the use of TMS in clinical neurophysiology, neurology, neuroscience, and psychiatry has spread widely, mostly in research applications, but increasingly with clinical aims in mind. Transcranial magnetic stimulation is based on the principle of electromagnetic induction, as discovered by Michael Faraday in 1838. If a pulse of current passing through a coil placed over a person’s head has sufficient strength and short enough duration, rapidly changing magnetic pulses are generated that penetrate scalp and skull to reach the brain with negligible attenuation. These pulses induce a secondary ionic current in the brain. The site of stimulation of a nerve fibre is the point along its length at which sufficient current to cause depolarisation passes through its membrane.
Participation in the MD Anderson 1st Year Medical Student Program would provide a research based experience that would catalyze my goals for the future. Investigations with results that could prove practical towards my patients at the bedside are of great interest to me. This has sparked my attention towards translational medicine as a promising area of investigation. I believe the field of radiomics in particular has tremendous potential for clinical applications in direct patient care, especially in the field of oncology. Radiomics lies at the juncture of what I believe to be extremely exciting science in the coming future of personalized medicine.
CT is used for initial staging, assessing response to therapy , and for follow-up. (3) Positron emission tomography or pet, it is an advanced tomographic functional imaging modality. This technique depends on detecting gamma ray produced by radio tracer like 18 F "FDG" flouro deoxyglucose through pair production resulting in a pair of gamma-ray each with 511 Kev energy an 180° "add picture of annihilation event ". The uptake mechanism of FDG depends on the metabolism rate of the cell whether it was organ, muscle or a tumour cell. Using this modality technique can help us to accurately diagnose and evaluate re-evaluate patient after
He also noticed that as the coil loops increased so did the voltage as read on a galvanometer. This process of moving the magnet in between the coil wire demonstrated electromagnetic induction. The experiment performed by Erin Bjornsson they talk about how to perform “Faraday’s Experiment” (Bjornsson, 2013) By following similar steps performed by Michael Faraday their hypothesis asked “what will happen when you pass a strong magnet through a loop of copper wire.” (Bjornsson, 2013) With a similar setup as Faraday they passed a magnet through a cardboard tube that had wire wrapped around it. As more loops were added more current was shown on a galvanometer. They tested Faraday’s process and proved it to be correct.