The experimental procedure is divided into the following sections: descriptions of the materials and equipment, the start-up procedure, sample preparation, the experimental procedure for both experiments, the shutdown procedure, and the safety and precautions when and before conducting the experiment. In order for the efficient use of the filtration unit, the controls and components of the equipment need to be properly understood and familiarised with. Below is a description of the components of the Armfield Filtration unit (Figure 1). Materials and equipment The Armfield UOP 12 Filtration (Figure 1) has a control console that controls the stirrer and the pump. It also shows values for
Piping engineers are developing the plot plan, the arrangement of the equipment in the facility reflects, in part, the logical sequence of flow depicted on the flow diagram. Flow diagrams describe in a schematic drawing format the flow of fluids and gases through a unit or an entire plant. The flow diagram provides the piping designerwith an overall view of the operation of a facility. Fig4 is an example of P&ID. Figure 9: P&ID 2.1.5 Piping Material Specification
2-The Experimental Apparatus and Procedure: The experimental rig has built to measure pressure gradient along the horizontal pipe for three phase flow namely liquid, gas and solid particle as shown in figure (1). The experimental rig has designed with horizontal pipe length and inner diameter are (4 m) and (3.175 cm), respectively. The horizontal pipe includes transparent test section (glass pipe) with length (1m).The experimental equipments include the following: 1- Main water tank with capacity (1 m3). 2- Air compressor. It has a specification capacity of (0.5 m3) and maximum pressure of (16 bars) 3- Solid particles tank.
Investigations into application of two prime mover variants for Pico-Hydro Generation Abstract- This paper presents simple design procedure of a turbine and water wheel for use in Pico hydro generating units. Authors have designed and fabricated a turbine and water wheel and tested them at two different sites for electrical power generation. A scheme is suggested to obtain desired a. c. voltage and frequency to enable the unit to be used for domestic appliances. Test results are presented. Applications of such units are discussed.
ANSWER 1: BOD value importance Figure: BOD curve [https://www.slideshare.net/gauravhtandon1/characteristics-of-wastewater-uniti] • For designing the biological waste water treatment process and design BOD values are of paramount importance as they are helpful in calculating the influent and effluent load requirement’s. • The index for organic matter can be determined by the BOD values which will give an idea about the complexity of the organic pollutants present and the time requirements for its treatment, removal and other parameters. • BOD values will give an idea of the duration required for the discharged waste water into a stream to be completely assimilated and treated naturally in the stream. • It is the best qualitative test for
CHAPTER 2 2. LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK 2.1.1 WATER SOURCES AND THE HYDROLOGICAL CYCLE The need for understanding the hydrological cycle is essential for knowing the various water sources and it also helps in the exploring of the different factors that affect the quality water (Michael, 2006) and the quality of water from the source contributes to the treatment process that is going to take place for the removal of water contaminants. Hydrological cycle is a process that describes the continuous movement of water in the environment i.e. on, above and below the surface of the Earth. Figure 1.
The controllers are implemented in this paper based on comparative analysis to control the output temperature of heat exchanger system. In addition to that optimization through GA technique will be implemented in this paper later for better effective temperature control. Keywords: Heat exchanger, FOPID, PID controller, temperature control, GA I. INTRODUCTION Heat exchangers are widely used
Scope and Methodology (or simply Introduction?) This part of the report aims to evaluate a Quantitative Risk Analysis (QRA) report per today’s requirements. These include the requirements as set by NORSOK Z-013 and the PSA (Petroleum Safety Authority). PSA’s regulations can be found in the official PSA website and some of them are mentioned in this section of the report, however in this report greatest reference is given on a set of requirements set by the authority which focuses on the efficient use of safety barriers. The PSA’s Principles for barrier management in the petroleum industry 2013 published in 2013 is based on a set of requirements focused on barrier management.
Scope of the Research The main focus of this research is regarding the thermal comfort of occupants in laboratories in the tropics. An air-conditioned laboratory and a naturally ventilated laboratory in INTI International University, Nilai, Malaysia were selected as the test venues. The thermal environment of the laboratories was generated using CFD while conforming to the international standards of ISO 7730 (2005) and ASHRAE Standard 55 (2010). Boundary conditions and initial conditions for the CFD model were measured before performing the simulation. Certain parameters such as environmental pressure, humidity, clothing level, and metabolic rate were assumed appropriately.
CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 INTRODUCTION Absorption column is an industrial column that being used to separate solute in the gas and to be absorbed by a liquid. Absorption column is frequently being used in processing of materials, purification and others activities. To ensure smooth and efficient operation, absorption column need to be designed for specific activities (McMahon & Osborne, 2013). A major application of absorption technology is by absorption in solutions of amine or alkaline salts for the removal of CO2 and H2S from natural gas or synthesis gas. Other than that, absorption column can be used to wash ammonia from a mixture of ammonia and air by using water.