Essay On Polymerase Chain Reaction

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The polymerase chain reaction is a laboratory process in which a specific sequence of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is amplified producing many copies of the specific DNA sequence. However, their must be components such as (DNA template, primers, DNA polymerase, deoxyribonucleotide triphosphates (dNTP’s), buffer solution, and magnesium chloride salt solution) are required to carry out the process which undergoes through three major stages to make the copies of DNA segment. First stage is denaturation, after that annealing, then extension. However, this can be done if and only if the 3’ and 5’ ends are known, this helps in initiating DNA synthesis in which it is ensured that two short oligonucleotides acts as primer will anneal onto DNA strands. Polymerase chain reaction process is used as a diagnostic and research tool due to the fact that it can be done within a few hours which makes it a rapid assay.

The polymerase chain reaction is made in an automated machine called thermocycler which can increase and decrease the temperature quickly. The components are mixed together in a tiny volume tube. In
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The process can be used for early diagnosis such as test for genetic disease, infectious disease, and cancer. Furthermore, the quantitative polymerase chain reaction use molecular finding to identify the disease instead of the physiological symptoms. It can detect the AIDS virus within the first few weeks after infection. Also it can identify the number of specific sequence of DNA present in a sample. This can help in diagnostic of disease as well as in the researches. Both the quantitative and qualitative polymerase chain reaction can distinguish the genes involved in the development of cancer, which can helps in the treatment due to the fact that these genes are able to determine the progression of the disease and an impact in the effectiveness of the

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