Rapid human population growth has a variety of consequences. Population grows faster in the world 's poorest countries. High fertility rates have historically been strongly correlated with poverty, and high childhood mortality rates. Falling fertility rates are generally associated with improved standards of living, increased life expectancy, and lowered infant mortality. The family planning policy adopted by the government in the early 1980s reduced the overall growth rate of population, but the massive migration from rural to urban China has supplied the much needed labour force to fuel industrialization.
Population aging is set to be increasing by 2050. Many countries will be suffering a decline of GDP, growth rate and others from this aging population. The main factors of this process are low and declining fertility rate and increasing life expectancy. As the cost of living increases, people tend to have a smaller family to reduce cost of living. While the health care system is improving, people become healthier and it helps to increase the life expectancy.
But the ageing population of European countries, in recent decades, is due to the relatively high birth rate in first quarter of the century, coupled with the decreasing rate of mortality in all age groups. The broad decline in fertility resulting in a process of population ageing, which occurs at a rate that does not correspondence in the history of most countries already aged and has significant social implications. Due to the differences in mortality due to gender, ageing tends to assume a greater dimension in women. Moreover, for a certain period of time, the changing age structure has a declining demographic dependency ratio, setting a time line for a breath-making to face a dependency ratio which again grow without, however, earlier levels, but transforms from young dependence in elderly. The concern with the quality of life in old age gained importance in the past 30 years to the extent that the growth of number of older people and the expansion of longevity became an experience shared by an
Population ageing is defined as the process by which the proportion of elderly persons in the population increases .The rapid decline in fertility and lowering of mortality rates in recent years has led to dramatic rise in the number and proportion of the elderly in the population of developed and developing countries. Until the early 1980s, developing countries perceived that population aging was an issue that concerned developed countries only. But as consequence of rapid decline in fertility and of increasing life expectancy, the developing countries have become increasingly aware of range of problems regarding ageing. In India trend of population ageing is very high. A reverse mortgage is a home loan that provides cash payments based on
Malthus said that the rate of population growth was much higher than the increase in food capacity needed for human nutrition, which inevitably creates a crisis. Malthus, who exemplifies the population growth in the United States, in particular, has suggested that if the population is released, the population will increase one time every twenty-five years. According to this, the balance between the population and the foodstuffs is deteriorating and the difference between population growth and sources must be
The attitude of demographers and economists about the role of population in economic development has undergone a dramatic change in recent years-from a pessimistic to an optimistic view. Earlier many scholars believed that rapid growth of population puts a constraint on faster growth by diverting resources from investment to consumption. The more recent view holds that the process of demographic transition resulting from a fast decline in mortality rates and a slower decline in birth rates creates a population bulge initially in the younger age group, but creates a window of opportunity later when the young join the work force. The demographic dividend hypothesis relies on the changes in the age structure of population leading to a rise in
Very impoverished country) - Stage 3: Late expanding – most low-income countries. - Stage 4: Low fluctuating – most middle and high-income countries. - Stage 5: Contracting - The rate of births decreases with death rates. This will affect the population to go higher, but we do not want the population to grow too fast. Patterns in Births (Crude Birth Rate) - The number of survived births per 1000 population in a year.
This has major impact on sustainability of current pension plans in the country. The more elderly people there are, the more pension plans to support. Based on the projected values estimated by United Nations Population Division, as quoted by Park (2012) in an ADB report, the ratio of the elderly (60 and above) to the active labor force (15-59 years old) is gradually increasing. This means that the labor force carries a gradually increasing burden brought about by the elderly. In line with this, there is a gradually increasing imbalance between contributions and benefits for the pension funds.
Figure 3 shows a steady decline in visitors from inception of the Modernization Program in 2006-2010, part of it likely due to the economic recession. Looking further, it also shows an increase of passenger traffic from 2011-2014 which could also be the result of economic recovery in addition to the expanded international market. 2010 and 2012 shows a significant jump in previous year international visitors of 12.1% and 20.4% respectively. Conclusion Honolulu International Airport has been preparing for quite some time to be able to accommodate the influx of passengers from U.S. and International carriers with the development of the Hawaii Airports Modernization Program. The foresight of former Governor Linda Lingle to start this initiative should undoubtedly relieve current and future passenger congestion traveling through Honolulu.
According to the UNDESA (United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs), the current population of the world is 7.4 billion. It is expected to reach 8.5 billion by 2030, 9.7 billion by 2050, and 11.2 billion by 2100. Lots of reasons contribute to the effect of rising populations. One of the main reasons is the number of revolutions and the advances in medicine. The world’s population rose because before medicine if you got sick you could die of most illnesses.