The neural tube of a fetus typically closes in utero within 4 weeks after conception. The cause of this defect remains unknown to many researchers and is believed to be dependent on several factors such as genetics, nutrition, environmental elements, or any combination of these. o Sex Factors: ▪ According to the study conducted by Kondo, Kamihira, and Ozawa, a common mutation in the MTHFR along with the lack of folic acid as been identified as a risk factor in Spina Bifida. ▪ Researchers of this study also found that there were more female fetuses afflicted with Spina Bifida as opposed to male fetuses (Kondo, et al. 2008, p. 50).
For a woman to achieve this she would need to use contraceptives for around three decades (“Contraceptive Use in the United States.”). Even with the technology that has come about recently that gives women the ability to track ovulation, medical birth control is still needed. About 61 million women in the U.S are at the age for child bearing, but about 43 million of these women are at risk for unwanted pregnancy (“Contraceptive Use in the United States.”). This means that either they do not have the means to purchase birth control, their religious beliefs restrict them from acquiring contraceptives, or a multitude of other various reasons. Couples who do not use any form of contraceptives have about an eighty-five percent chance of becoming pregnant in a year.
Endometriosis While other women may have it easy to get impregnated or are making the decision to terminate their pregnancy, there are other women who are not able to have their own children. Some women decide to terminate their pregnancy based on social stigma or abusive situations. There are others who die trying to have a normal sex life and become pregnant. One of the most painful and dreadful moments is knowing that you cannot conceive a “seed” of your own. A common condition known in gynecology is endometriosis.
CHAPTER ONE 1.1 INTRODUCTION Infertility may be defined as the inability of a married couple to achieve pregnancy over a twelve-month period despite regular frequent unprotected sexual intercourse. Also, it could be the inability to carry a pregnancy to a live birth (Rowe & Farley, 1988). Infertility has a long history in many cultures. Recent global evidence shows infertility as a major public health problem. Infertility, or the inability to conceive, is a problem of global proportions, affecting between 8 and 12 percent of couples worldwide (Etuk, 2009), In developing countries, one in four ever married women of reproductive age are infertile due to primary or secondary infertility (WHO/DHS, 2004).
Did you know that Mathilde and Emily have somewhat in common? Yes they essentially do, and it is that they demand so much that they cannot let go of some kind of entity. As for both, they do vary in how they are analyzed though their actions, or their characteristics. Deep down somewhere, those women’s circumstances were immoral in many habits. To illustrate, both women inside felt incomplete that they lost what they desired.
According to conducted studies, 20% of women experience severe anxiety and fear of childbirth which in 6 to 10% of them interferes with their daily lives . Fear of childbirth may be related to worry about labor pain, childbirth tears, doubt about ability to giving birth vaginally, lack of support, being lonely during labor, and fear of child death or mother’s own death [2, 3]. Studies indicated that women’s fear related to childbirth is multidimensional and can be categorized into domains including pain, obstetric injuries, loss of control, insufficient support and loss of the baby’s or their own life [2, 4]. These fears may cause complications such as experiencing severe labor pain , postpartum depression or anxiety, physical problems, and impaired mother-fetus attachment [6-8]. Anxiety and stress can increase the levels of catecholamine, which can
Abortion also causes the unborn baby to feel extreme pain and reduces the number of children to adopt for women who can not conceive. All this being said, it is simply unrealistic to believe terminating your pregnancy is acceptable under any
“A review of eight American studies revealed a 50% increased risk of placenta previa after an abortion”(Abortion Complications). An abortion is when a women that is pregnant decides that she cannot take care, or provide for a baby. In the U.S. approximately 652,659 abortion procedures were performed in 2014(Abortion Statistics). Abortions are detrimental to women’s health; abortions have caused women to have depression, an increase in hospitalizations after abortions, and an increase in suicide post abortion. Many studies prove this claim that abortions are detrimental.
Also, during suction aspiration or other methods used to abort, women could suffer from uterus perforation or cervical lacerations. According to the World Health Organization, almost 47 000 women die each year due to complications of unsafe abortion (World Health Organization) which shows that risks do happen during abortions. Despite problems during abortion’s surgical procedure, abortion can result in medical complications later in women’s life. For instance, the risk of suffering ectopic pregnancy, where the fetus get attached outside the uterus, may increase; which is life threatening and may result in reduced fertility. Another post-abortion risk for all women is Endometritis, which is a uterine infection produced by different kinds of bacteria.
This happens if a fetus stops growing and the body begins to expel such fetus. In this case, there will be induced abortion if a mother takes the decision to end her pregnancy through either the medical or the surgical induction (University of Washington, 2015) The women may take the decision of abortions for medical reasons such as contraceptive failure. This is the most common reason to abortion. There are more than half women choose abortions. Risking death or severe injury may be
•Incompetent Cervix is a condition that occurs when the weak cervical tissue causes or contributes to premature birth or the loss of an otherwise healthy pregnancy. •Many women first become aware of incompetent cervix after losing their first pregnancy. Most often, the woman has a birth defect that affects the normal shape of the uterus or cervix, but they have no history to indicate the condition. Women who may be at risk for incompetent cervix include those who: had a previous D&C or those who had a previous surgery for an abnormal pap smear or those who had a damaged cervix. •Signs and symptoms: mild discomfort or spotting over a period of several days or weeks, a sensation of pelvic pressure, backache, mild abdominal cramps, change in vaginal discharge, and light vaginal bleeding.
A woman may not recognize she has Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome until soon after in life when symptoms of not being capable to conceive. Women of all backgrounds may acquire Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome. The signs and symptoms such as menstrual abnormality and high levels of the male hormone androgen, delay of routine menstruation, having fewer than common menstrual periods and the lack of a menstrual cycle and weight gain.