a mandatory subject, resulting in poor results. At school, teaching or learning English language essentially focused on teaching grammar rules, sentence structure rule with special emphasis on prescriptive grammar and vocabulary. Later on at higher secondary school and university level programs, it was trusted that language learning did not only about learning grammar rules and vocabulary, it was also related with culture that gets reflected in literature or writing. So literary texts were highly
and specially during pre-writing stage (Hayes and Flower). The present study investigated the effects on EFL learners’ writing ability of some visual aids and outlining during the pre-writing stage. To do so, 40 Iranian EFL learners completed four essay writing tasks i.e., writing without any pre-writing hint, writing using some picture cues, writing with teacher-made outline and writing with their own outlines.
English, although is a second language for Bhutanese, it is used as medium of instruction in education and official correspondence. It encompasses linguistic features like grammar, pronunciation, and spelling. With the introduction of the modern education system in the 1960s, the Bhutanese government not only decided to include English as a subject in the curriculum but also as the medium of instruction. Since then, the way that Bhutanese use English, both written and spoken, has progressed, accelerating