The transducers were situated at specific known locations to measure the dynamic pressure profile within the tube. Using plastic film as the diaphragm, the driver region was pressurized with air from 6 to 14 psig in 2 psig increments to study the effects of driver pressure on the resulting shock wave. The right end of the shock tube was left open for all trials except one, in which it was closed at 8 psig to study the effects of shock wave reflection. In addition, helium was used in one trial at 8 psig to study the effects of driver gas on the resulting shock wave. After pressurization, the diaphragm was penetrated using a sharp metal plunger that slid into a small hole in the shock tube near the driver region.
The Hopkinson pressure bar used was designed for two types of pulses; a longitudinal monomode pulse and a longitudinal/radial multimode pulse for calibration and operational tests respectively. The results show that the interpretation of recorded acceleration signals is often difficult. Foil strain gauges were proved to be well suited for shock measurements if the strain levels are sufficiently high. Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) gauges were found to be the best choice for low strain levels due to their excellent signal-to-noise ratio. The application of accelerometers required careful selection of
This probe has a 10 MHz ultrasound transducer that mechanically rotates inside a plastic cylinder, providing a 3600 view. The higher frequency (10 MHz vs 7 MHz) and having the sensor inside the plastic cylinder (vs water-filled balloon) has been identified to provide a better image quality . All patients were positioned in the left lateral position and underwent the assessment without sedation. The probe was inserted in to the rectum after lubricating it. The anal canal and surrounding soft tissue were assessed for the morphology of the IAS, EAS and Puborectalis muscle.
A sensor that can be able to detect the presence of nearby objects without any sort of physical contact is called as proximity sensor. This sensor emits an electromagnetic field or a beam of electromagnetic radiation and looks for the return signal or any changes in the field. The object being sensed is referred to as target of the proximity sensor. Different proximity sensor targets require different sensors. For example, for a plastic target an capacitive or photoelectric sensor might be suitable; an inductive proximity sensor always requires a metal target.
It uses the same principle as a venturi nozzle, namely Bernoulli 's principle which says that there is a relationship between the pressure of the fluid and the velocity of the fluid. When the velocity increases, the pressure decreases and vice versa.An orifice plate installed in a line creates a pressure differential as the fluid flows through it. This differential pressure is measured via impulse lines by a differential pressure transmitter which converts it into an analogue or digital signal which can be processed to provide a display of the instantaneous rate of flow. The relationship between the rate of flow and the differential pressure produced is very well understood and is fully covered by comprehensive national standards. The relevant standards are BS 1042 and the equivalent ISO 5167.
3.11: Temperature Sensor 188.8.131.52 Blood Pressure Sensor Blood pressure is the unit of pressure, the blood in the arteries as it is pumped around the body by the heart. When heart beats, it contracts and pushes blood through the arteries to the body.Blood pressure is recorded as the systolic pressure (as the heart beats) over the diastolic pressure (as the heart relaxes between beats). The unit which measures this is called Sphygmomanometer. Systolic (mm Hg) Diastolic (mm Hg) Hypotension < 90 < 60 Desired 90–119
In trial 3 a full plate without any hole is placed below the workpiece and its improvement was detected. It was found that there is directly relationship between support length and chipping size on rod. The experiments results are shown in table
This increase is defined as the constriction resistance [Figure 3]. Contaminant films on the contact surfaces increase the resistance of a-spots. The resistance caused by these oxide or gas films (contaminants) is called interface resistance. The total resistance due to constriction and
The principle The principle of capacitive sensors is to measure the changes in capacitance. The electrodes of the sensor form a capacitor. An alternating voltage is applied to create an alternating electric current, which is detected by the sensor. In general,
A PIR sensor passively detects infrared radiations in its surrounding area. Since this technology is used in fire detection it is also known as pyrosensors. In contrast to ultrasonic sensors a transmitter section is not needed here. It is obvious that a PIR motion sensor will only reacts to an object rather than the surrounding, for example human, humans animals or warm vehicles. It is important to know that the sensor does not sense absolute heat radiation, but only temporal and local changes in radiation.