Preterm births and low birth weight affect different states in the USA in a variety of ways. For example, research done in 2004 proved that preterm births are common among non-Hispanic African Americans women at 17.8 percent and least among the Asians and the Pacific Islanders women at 11.5 percent. The rate of low birthweight among non-Hispanic African Americans are also considerably high compared to the non-Hispanic white. Low birth weight among children brings creates a lot of problems. Children born with this condition require regular medication which is costly (Tambyraja & Mongelli, 2003).
The New Charity Report states, “Girls under the age of 15 are 5 times more likely to die in pregnancy than women in their 20’s, and that babies born to younger mothers are also at a greater risk.” It also states, “ Worldwide, complications in pregnancy are the “number one killer” of girls and young women aged 15-19, the report says, adding to that 50,000 teenage girls and young women die during pregnancy and childbirth every year, in many cases because their bodies are not ready to bear children” (NP, World Health Organization). Pregnant teens also have a higher chance of becoming anemic, which can affect the baby’s development. Teen mothers are more likely to have premature babies and depending on how premature the baby is, it can
Children born into homelessness can be at higher risk for infectious disease, stunted growth rate, and anemia. These deficiencies can be caused by environmental factors and poor nutrition(Hart-Shegos 2). In the novel, the Tillerman children all struggle to be accepted in school because of their obvious differences, likely caused by the time they spent homeless. They have experienced great hardships that they could not control, for example, their delayed development. This can be explained by, “Studies of pregnant women in New York City welfare hotels have shown their babies are twice as likely to weigh less than five pounds at birth when compared to all pregnant women.
Effectiveness of PNI regarding 'warm chain' in terms of knowledge and practice among staff nurses working in obstetrical and neonatal units in Selected Hospitals at Meerut. Abstract A newborn or neonate, is a child under 28 days of age. Hypothermia during the newborn period is widely regarded as a major contributory cause of significant morbidity in developing countries and, at its extreme, mortality1 Hypothermia during the newborn period is widely regarded as a major contributory cause of significant morbidity in developing countries and, at its extreme, mortality2. High prevalence of hypothermia has been reported from countries with the highest burden of neonatal mortality, where hypothermia is increasingly gaining attention and significance
Psychosis is medically defined as “a state in which a person’s mental capacity to recognize reality, communicate, and relate to others is impaired, thus interfering with the capacity to deal with life demands.” Postpartum is the time after child birth; therefore, a postpartum psychosis is a psychiatric emergency of psychotic episodes that occurs during the postpartum period. This is not to be confused with postpartum depression, which is a clinical depression that occurs after child birth. Postpartum psychosis is rare as it occurs in approximately one or two women for every one thousand deliveries. According to Postpartum Support International’s website, the episodes are sudden and begin within the first two weeks after child birth. Postpartum psychosis is
Child psychology, also called child development, is the study of the psychological processes of children and especially, how they develop as young adults and how they differ from one child to the next. It basically tends to map onto children’s physical, cognitive and social/emotional development. Psychologists attempt to make sense of every aspect of child development, including how children learn, think, interact and respond emotionally to people around them and understand emotions and their developing personalities, temperaments and skills. It also includes how individual, social and cultural factors may influence their development. Child study is of relatively recent origin.
Many state that the prevalence of urinary incontinence rises during pregnancy and declines after childbirth. Research states that the prevalence of urinary incontinence is higher after delivery than before gestation (Mørkved and Bø, 1999). However, many are unaware that there is such an issue during
The Learning perspective argues that children imitate what they see and hear,and that children learn from punishment and reinforcement. (Shaffer,Wood,& Willoughby,2002). The main theorist associated with the learning perspective is B.F. Skinner. Skinner argued that adults shape the speech of children by reinforcing the babbling of infants that sound most like words. (Skinner,1957,as cited in Shaffer,et.al,2002).
But these mutations account for not more than 5 percent of Alzheimer 's disease.  Also, scientists have identified a number of regions of interests in the genome that may increase a person’s risk for late onset of Alzheimer’s to variable degrees.  Most genetic mechanisms of Alzheimer 's among families remain largely mysterious. The strongest risk gene researchers have discovered so far is apolipoprotein e4 (APOE e4) which increases the person’s risk of developing the disease and is also connected with the earlier age of the disease onset.  Alzheimer 's disease is one of the expensive chronic diseases to society.
DESCRIPTION OF CHILD PSYCHOLOGY: Child psychology is a branch in mainstream psychology that focuses and works on the psychological issues of infants, toddlers and young adults within their social context. It pays special importance to the basic social and psychological needs of the adolescents and brings into consideration factors that affect them such as family, school, relatives etc. A main feature of child psychology is to understand the cognitive development, adaptation to social settings and health status of children and adolescents. SKILLS AND PROCEDURES UTILISED: Clinical child psychology employs a wide range of procedures and skills addressing the population of infants, toddlers, children and adolescents. Essential skills and procedures include: A child psychologist uses the technique of assessment which is to evaluate the psychosocial, cognitive, intellectual capacity of the child.
That’s why additional heat is needed such as warmer or incubator to maintain body temperature without assistance. Some of the long term complications that a preterm birth can lead to is impaired cognitive skills. Premature babies are more likely to lag behind their full term counter parts on various developmental mile stones. Cerebral palsy is one of the long term complications of premature birth due to injury to a pre term baby’s developing brain. Premature infants may develop retinopathy of prematurity, a disease that occurs when blood vessels swell and overgrow in the light sensitive layer of nerves at the back of the eye.
Neonatal nursing can become a very emotionally draining occupation to pursue. These nurses have to care for the babies that are born premature, or are at risk (Neonatal Nursing 2). Caring for babies that may not have a chance at life can be emotionally difficult. According to Pinfield, “A study showed that on average, each year 10% of babies are premature or have an illness that requires Neonatal care”. Pinfield also says that of all the infants that die before their first birthday, 70% die because they were born premature.
This Neural tube defect is not as common, but it is one of the most severe cases. Each year, about 1,000 babies are affected. Anencephaly can occur when the top portion of the spinal cord doesn’t close all the way. That baby that is born with this will have little to no brain matter. The baby may be missing some of its skull, and will have birth defects of the head and face.
Teen Pregnancy in Hopkinsville Hopkinsville has many youth-related issues. Amongst these issues are many health issues that affect teenagers. A major issue in Hopkinsville, as well as all of Christian County, is the alarming amount of teen pregnancies and births. Teen births are an issue in Hopkinsville that usually occur in women ages thirteen to nineteen. In Christian County, the range of births is 79 per 1,000 females.
It occurs in approximately one to two out of every one thousand deliveries, or approximately .1% births. It is said to be caused by a rapid shift in the hormonal environment. It starts off as baby blues during the first 48hrs and then progresses to psychosis. Postpartum psychosis represents an episode of bipolar illness. Women with this disorder exhibit a rapidly shifting depressed or elated mood, disorientation or confusion, and erratic or disorganized behavior.