The convexed bulge is created by the presence of the middle ethmoidal air cells and as a result, it contains an ostium that drains this space. Located anteroinferiorly to the ethmoid bulla, and posterior to the uncinate process, is a curved furrow called the hiatus semilunaris. It contains the maxillary ostium and an accessory maxillary ostium towards the inferior aspect of the groove and the ostia of the anterior ethmoidal air cells anteriorly. This groove is continuous with the ethmoidal infundibulum, which courses superiorly and deep to the anterior aspect of the middle concha and lateral to the orbital plate of the ethmoid bone. The frontal sinus is therefor able to communicate with, and drain its contents into the ostiomeatal complex because of the connection between its frontonasal duct (recess) and the ethmoidal infundibulum.
Nomenclature of intervertebral disc is such that it takes the name of the vertebra cephalad to it. The disc between L4 and 5 will be called L4 disc. Dorsal root ganglion (DRG) is present at the level of the intervertebral foramina and it is in the confines of the foramina. Three branches arise distal to the DRG- Ventral ramus, Dorsal ramus and sinuvertebral nerve. The ventral ramus is the most prominent and most important branch and it supplies the structures ventral to the neural canal.
Where medial plantar nerve is associated with flexor hallucis brevis. Deep branch of lateral plantar nerve is associated with adductor halluces muscle and superfacial branch is associated with digiti minimi brevis muscle. Fourth Layer The fourth layer of intrinsic muscles is made with the plantar and dorsal interossei muscles. These two muscles work differently. The plantar interossei made with unipennate morphology and dorsal interossei made with bipennate.
Fifth cranial nerve (trigeminal nerve) is affected to show the episode. The feeling of stabbing pain in upper jaw and teeth and slowly radiating towards nose is due to defective function of the maxillary nerve. The nerve is the second branch of trigeminal nerve. The initiating or trigger point is the loss of sensory or motor function of the second branch of fifth cranial nerve (Richard & Sanders, 2010) The following are the cranial nerves that involve in regulation of functions of eye o Optic nerve: The sensory nerve is a second cranial nerve help in whole process of sight and vision. The nerve involves in the transmission of electrical signals from the various parts of eye to CNS (brain), then the brain send an appropriate response in the form of an image to see (the objects what we see around us).
2004; Fiedler & Graw 2003), decomposition of a corpse commences immediately after death and involves the consecutive processes of autolysis, putrefaction and decay. Post mortem changes consists of early and late post mortem changes. Early post changes can be observed through the processes of rigor mortis, algor mortis and livor mortis. Rigor mortis is the stiffening of voluntary and involuntary muscles on the carcass or corpse. Livor mortis occur as a result from accumulation or blood pooling within dilated vascular channels at the lower part of body due to the gravity (Lee 2009; Powers 2005).Algor mortis can be defined as body cooling process or decreasing in body temperature until equal to ambient temperature (Parsons 2009; Reddy & Lowenstein 2011).
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Overview MMG (mechanomyography) is a technique for interpreting mechanical activity based on muscle contraction. The prediction of muscular tissue condition can be found using MMG, a technique that muscular mechanical waves produced during a fiber’s contraction and stretching that are sensed over skin surface . The purpose of this research is to explore various methods of muscle activity through MMG signal to recognize multiple hand gesture. The evaluation of muscle condition can be known with mechanomyography (MMG), that registers intramuscular mechanical waves produced during a fiber’s contraction and stretching that are sensed or interfaced over skin surface . The major focus is on mechanomyography, the measurements of mechanical response of muscle during activity.
INTRODUCTION: Voiding dysfunction is complication of urinary system. It is problem in bladder muscle and urethra. There are two types of urinary problem are retention and incontinence. In my SDL, I will talk about signs, symptoms, causes, and treatment of urinary incontinence and retention. Also identify the differentiate types of urinary incontinence.
Types of Expansion • Orthodontic Expansion: Predominantly dentoalveolar changes produced by lateral movement of the buccal segments- Conventional fixed appliance, Self-ligating appliance, Wilson arch, Expansion screws, Coffin spring. • Orthopaedic Expansion: Predominantly skeletal changes produced by the separation of mid-palatal suture-Rapid maxillary expansion appliance; Hyrax, Haas, Isaacson, Derichsweiller. Techniques for Expansion • Removable appliances • Rapid maxillary expansion • Fixed
Their journey is comprised of being transmitted through the spinal cord, past the medulla where they cross, through the thalamus, and finally to the parietal lobes, specifically the postcentral gyrus. Here, in the postcentral gyrus, the somatosensory cortex is located. Divided into primary and secondary, the somatosensory cortex houses neuron designated to specific locations of the body that they are responsible for detecting sensations
On the lateral meniscus, cleavage tears of the anterior and posterior horns and myxoid change of the body are noted. Semimembranosus tendinosis is seen. There is Pes anserine “bursis.”Grade 1 chondromalacia patella is demonstrated, primarily at the medial facet. There are medial femorofibial osteoarthritis and enthesophyte, superior aspect of the patella.
Synergist muscles also help to create the movement. In the bicep curl the synergist muscles are the brachioradialis and brachialis which assist the biceps to create the movement and stabilise the elbow joint Type of contraction Concentric Contraction From the Sport and PE book by Kevin Wesson, Nesta Wiggins-James, Graham Thompson and Sue Hartigan I have gained some extra information on concentric contraction. Within the book it explains that this type of contraction involves the muscle shortening while contracting. A main example of this would be that this occurs during the upward phase of a bicep curl in the tricep. Eccentric Contraction An eccentric muscle contraction is a type of muscle activation that increases tension on a muscle as it lengthens.
The pons are a part of the metencephalon in the hindbrain. The medulla oblongata is located between the pons and spinal cord. This structure is responsible for basic vital life functions such as breathing, heartbeat, and blood pressure. The midbrain is involved in functions such as vision, hearing, eye movement, and body movement. The pons are involved in motor control and sensory analysis.
The SAP block primarily the thoracic intercostal nerves and to provide anterior hemithorax as arising from the anterior axillary line to the sternum, the posterior hemithorax as being from the posterior axillary line to the spinous processes of the vertebra, and the lateral hemithorax as the area in between the other two. Here we describe the use of ultrasound (US)-guided SAP block to treat acute, severe zoster-associated
It is divided into two sides which are connected together by nerve bundles called the corpus callosum. The left side or part controls the right side of your body where 's the right hemispheres controls the left side.The cerebellum,that lies towards the back of your brain maintains your body’s sense of balance and coordinates muscular movements with sensory information. It also regulates breathing, your breathing and other automatic