Essay On Recurrent Implantation

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Recurrent implantation failure (RIF) and recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) are the major problems faced by infertile couples undergoing in-vitro fertilization1.Early embryonic mortality is very high in humans, and it was analysed that the principal cause for failed pregnancy is an error of implantation2,3,4.The incidence of recurrent pregnancy loss should be approximately 1 in 300 pregnancies. The etiologies for RPL are parental chromosomal abnormalities, uterine anomalies, endocrine dysfunction, autoimmune disorders, maternal and paternal age, infectious diseases, environmental toxins, etc. Spontaneous pregnancy loss is a common occurrence; approximately 15% of all clinically proven pregnancies result in spontaneous abortions, even many more pregnancies fails prior to being clinically recognized. Only 30 % of all conceptions results in live birth5. At least three consecutive pregnancy losses before 20 weeks from the last menstrual period is said to be recurrent miscarriage or habitual abortion.
In spite of advancement in the
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It is estimated that upto 85% of embryo’s transferred through assisted reproductive technique could not be implanted into endometrial cavity successfully9. For the embryo to implant effectively it needs good trophoblastic invasion as well as an increased blood supply 10-11. Failure to conceive after atleast two cycles of embryo transfer is defined as recurrent implantation failure (RIF)12.Wide range of physiological factors are responsible for recurrent implantation failure such as hormonal imbalance, poor endometrial receptivity, defects in foetal growth, abnormal changes in the expression of adhesion molecules, immunological factors and genetic abnormalities. The etiology of recurrent implantation failure (RIF) and recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) largely overlaps where the results of the studies of RSA can also be extended to RIF

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