(2013) the causes of acts of bullying can be divided into emotional and instrumental. Emotional causes suggest that aggressive acts or pranks are a means of entertainment, or that bullies aim to vent their dislike of victimized high-risk students through acts of aggression. Instrumental causes comprises of those in which the bully attacks victims to obtain possessions, power or status. Results found that students who are provocative, are different, disadvantaged or who have poor relationships with their peers, are at greater risk of being targeted by potential bullies. This may be the result of intolerance towards diversity on the part of those who bully, or be due to lack of adherence by victims to peer-group norms (Wong et al.,
Aggression is something psychologists find hard to define because what one person may say is aggressive behaviour another person may think differently. Aggression has been described as “behaviour that results in injury or destruction of property” (Bandura) and Berkowitz defined it as “Behaviour that is intended to injure some-one physically or psychologically.” Both these definitions have a common ground; the “intention to harm.”(Bushman,2002) Social psychologists argue that aggressive behaviour arises out of our interactions with others in our social world. The Social Learning Theory (SLT) suggests that a child learns aggressive behaviour by observing others acting aggressively. They can also learn aggressive behaviour through situations
Bullying has several cases that happen nowadays. Why do you consider bullying takes place everywhere? Is insecurity a reason why people treat others in an aggressive way? Why do people become bullies? Insecurity is done by people also the other says that insecurity is the reason why young adults become bullies, however, there are several factors to prove that being insecure can lead to bullying.
Sexual assault and abuse can have devastating impacts. Sexual assault is undesired sexual act by person which lead the partner to feel uncomfortable during the relationship. It contains: • forced sexual behavior like rape • stalking, human trafficking and exhibitionism • forcing someone to act humiliating sexual behavior by force These three types of violence are different levels of abuse, with much more kinds of violence which can’t be listed, all of them are damaging in their own ways (Domestic violence statistics 2017). Finally, and the most important point, is how to prevent family violence in our community. The first step if you know someone is being hurt, you should talk to them and tell them that you’re concerned about their safety, ask them to talk about what’s happening with them, let them know that what’s happening is a crime and it’s not their fault.
This might involve physically attacking someone, or breaking or throwing things. Another type is retaliatory anger, this is when you are motivated by revenge for a perceived wrong. It is aimed to intimidate others. Also, self-abusive anger is also another common impulsive anger, it is a shame-based anger where you have impulses to harm yourself.
Some adolescents may talk about how people who were mean to them will feel sorry for what they have done and never be able to forgive them after death. This is just one of many ways the Imaginary Audience affects the adolescent and her possible risk taking. Risk taking occurs more often in adolescence than during any other stage of development (). The Personal Fable and the Imaginary Audience are two aspects of risk taking that may have other contributing factors to the reason for the risk taking. For example an adolescent who is very reliant on impressing their peers and wanting to fit in may take more risks with the Imaginary Audience in mind ().
A relational conflict occurs when the goals of interdependent people are incompatible and at least one person to communicate to others about the incompatibility (Froemling et at, 2011). Conflict also has phases such as: latent, perceived, felt, manifest, and aftermath (Hingst, Lindsay PowerPoint). Any conflict brings positive and negative consequences. We can also learn with conflict and how to manage them. And relational conflicts also bring some issues based on behavioral, normative, personality and moral conflict.
Anger has a functional mechanism of aggression, fighting injustice and removing obstacles. There are different theories that could explain the generation of emotion such as arousal- and motivation-based appraisal theories, network theories and other cognitive appraisal theories. However, in
And thus, the action of bullying takes form in our society. Even though the term bullying does not have a standard universal definition, it has been designated as a subcategory of aggressive behaviour, outlined by at least three criteria, among which are considered the hostile intent of the action, a clear imbalance of power between the abuser and the abused, and the repetition over a period of time. Of aggressive behaviour, it is considered a type of comportment that involves physical or emotional damage to another, while at the same time it implies a violation of social boundaries, as the person engaging in actions labelled as characteristic is acting either secretly or openly hostile, retorting to types of abuse varying from verbal to physical. And such, the very notion of bullying can be interpreted as the activity of repeated aggressive behaviour destined to hurt another individual mentally, physically or emotionally. Furthermore, the act of bullying has been separated into two categories, individual and collective, from which derive other
The antecedent/precursor will instigate the behaviour which will then be promoted, changed or inhibited based upon the consequences of such behaviours (Weiten, 2014). Referring to the Lotter case, the children may have been told to do something, and if they didn’t then they may have been shouted at and given a smack, which would have instigated fear. The next time the children were told to do something, or not to do something, they would have immediately felt the fear which was conditioned into them. Living a life of fear and anxiety pays a toll on one’s psyche, which could well have led the siblings to the murder their parents as a result of psychological instability (this is more psychodynamic theory – anything that is deep in the psyche or causes psychological