Concrete: cellular concrete of clay- gypsum and invention of light weight concrete Ferro concrete: this concrete is made up of a layer of fine mesh wire saturated with cement. Gunite: or commonly referred as a shot crete. This type or form of concrete is most commonly used in areas where formwork is limited or hard to use. Shoring up exposed vertical excavations, banks or surfaces susceptible to collapse. For example, vertical soil or rock surfaces.
The shear wall comprises of braced panels (shear panels) to counter lateral load effects acting on a structure. Seismic loads and wind is amongst the most common loads that shear wall designed to carry. When shear wall is build, it is constructed in line form of heavily braced and reinforced panels. This is why they are also known as braced wall lines in some region. The wall perfectly connects two exterior walls and braces other shear walls in the structure.
1.6. Concrete dam types and characteristics: Concrete dams are constructed of mass concrete. Face slopes are dissimilar, generally steep downstream and near vertical upstream, and dams have relatively slender profiles dependent upon the type. This group includes all types of concrete dams as, 1-Gravity Dams: The concrete gravity dam is made of roller compacted concrete (RCC) or masonry building and adopted to sites having sound rock foundation. Gravity dams depend on their weight in stability.
CONCRETE CRACKING AND USING NON DESTRUCTIVE TESTING TO EVALUATE THE STRUCTURAL INTEGRITY OF A STRUCTURE Introduction These days, concrete is the main building material for constructing structures for human use. Buildings and bridges etc. are generally made of concrete. It is extremely important to guarantee that the structure functions properly during their service life.88888.Many concrete structures are prematurely deteriorating and remedial measures are provided to reinstate their serviceability and safety. Deterioration may be a result of several factors, including design, materials used, workmanship, environmental influences during construction and service life, and loads acting on the structure.
A combination of high tensile steel and mild steel reinforcement is used. The high tensile steel is usually positioned at the bottom of the concrete floor to withstand any tensile forces. The main reinforcement usually consists of 12mm diameter high tensile steel rod spaced from 150 to 225mm apart, and
The last main type of bridges is an arch bridge. An arch bridge a beam that has an arch shape underneath it. This arch shape is to reinforce the beam. Rather than taking having all of the weight push on the bridge straight down, the arch spreads out all of the weight. The weight eventually falls on the abutments, keeping most of the weight off of the beam.
The application of geotextile is civil engineering, coastal engineering and also huge used of construction site. Generally, geotextiles are located in the tension area to make stronger the soil. Geo-synthetics: A planar, polymeric (synthetic or
Double Wall Cofferdam If the area that is supposed to be enclosed by the dam is large, it becomes necessary to use a double wall cofferdam which is made of two lines of sheet piles tied to each other. There is a space between the tied sheet piles that is filled in with sand providing stability for the cofferdam. Double wall cofferdams are used when the area to be enclosed by the dam is very large and the water depth is
The inactive part consists of sand and coarse aggregates. Concrete have high compressive strength and low tensile strength. To overcome this shortcoming, steel reinforcements are used along with the concrete. This type of concrete is called reinforced cement concrete
The main purpose of the foundation is to transfer the load from the building to the subsoil beneath. (Duncan Marshall, 2013) The foundation of the building also acts as the support to the superstructure. The load of the building must be equilibrium to the subsoil foundation load bearing capacity. This is because if the load of the building is exceeding the safe bearing capacity of the ground, subsidence will happen. (Cotgrave, 2011) Foundation defects commonly occurred due to: 1.