Shrutis In Hindu Religion

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(i) Shruti-
It literally means that which has been heard. This word is derived from the root “shru” which means ‘to hear’. Int is believed to be the paramount source of Hindu Law and is believed to be the language of the divine revelation through the sages. They contain explanation and directions for the guidance of the priests. These shrutis occupy the most exalted position for spiritual bearing. Shruti is also known as Veda which is derived from “vid” meaning ‘to know’. The synonym of shruti is veda. It is derived from the root “vid” meaning ‘to know’ and is based on the tradition that they are the repository of all knowledge. There are four Vedas namely;

1. Rig Veda - contains 1028 hymns in Sanskrit language and 10 Mandals which
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The word Smriti is derived from the root “smri” meaning ‘to remember’. Traditionally, they represent what was recorded by sages in their own words of what they had heard from their deity. Thus, the basis of the Smritis is Shrutis but they are human work. Early Smritis (800-200B.C. ) were termed as ‘Dharma sutras’. It consisted of prose in the form of short maxims (Sutras)and were written by the teachers expounding vedas for the sake of their students . Gautama, Bandhayana, Apatamba, Basistha and Vishnu were the important dharmasutra authors. Whereas later smrirtis were termed as ‘Dharma sashtras’ . They are composed in the form of poetry (shlokas). These were more systematic as compared to early smritis and talks about the duties of men.The eminent smritikaras were Manu, Yagnavalkya and…show more content…
Legislations have certainly superseded the textual law and have contributed in reforming the laws. Statues passed by the legislatures are described as the formal sources of Hindu Law.


Since the aegis of time, Hindu law has been reformed and modified to some extent through legislations but these reforms have been half-hearted and fragmentary. The problem with fragmentary reforms is that though reforms were made to change some aspects, their implications on other aspects were over-looked. For example, the Hindu Women’s Right to Property Act, 1937, was passed with a view to granting property rights to women but its repercussions on the law of joint family was over-looked. The result was that fragmentary reforms through legislations solved some problems but resulted in others.
2. The important legislations which have modified, altered and supplemented the Hindu law are as follows:

(4) The Special Marriage Act, 1872:
The Act permitted marriage between persons having different castes and different religions. It was amended in 1923 and has been repealed by the Act 43 of 1954
(12) The Child Marriage Restraint Act, 1928 (Sharda

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