The entry length, the length along the pipe for flow becomes fully developed, is directly proportional to the ratio of the pipe length and tank diameter and inversely proportional to that of pipe diameter to tank diameter. This gives us a new way of solving unsteady and underdeveloped fluid flow systems which would help us gain a consistent result and discussion in approaching problem. However, results gained from this experiment does not match with the theoretical values obtained. To further develop this experiment, it is recommended to be alert in recording time, be observant for the formation of vortices, pour the fluid slowly to eliminate the formation of air and overflow
Among this the profile segment at the highest elevation shown a wide open valley with left side inclination. But while considering the cross sections of the river segments in the upper catchment region, it is shown open ‘V’ shaped valley to broad “U’ shaped valleys. This indicates changes in the channel pattern in different segments of the river which was reflected as misfit channel cross profile
No adjustment is made in stream stage. Even with these limitations, the RIV package adequately represents most surface groundwater systems. Figure 5.2(a)Stream- Aquifer System (b) Representation of the stream-aquifer system in the RIV Package The RIV package uses the river bed conductance (CRIV) to account for the length (L) and width (W) of the river channel in the cell, the thickness of the river bed sediments (M), and their vertical hydraulic conductivity (Kr) Whereas, CRIV=Kr LW/M (1a) The rate of leakage between the river and the aquifer (QRIV) is calculated from (2a) QRIV=CRIV (HRIV-h) h>RBOT (2a) Where HRIV is the head in the source reservoir and h is the head in the aquifer directly below the source reservoir (Fig.5.2b). When the water table falls below the bottom of the stream bed (RBOT), leakage stabilizes and QRIV is calculated
This means that they will not need installation of purification systems, which are usually expensive. Rainwater harvesting systems are cost effective, provide high quality water, reduce dependence on wells. The surplus rainwater can also be used to recharge ground water aquifer through artificial recharge techniques. Reduces erosion and flooding around
Figure 7: A tear drop in a uniform flow  The potential flow for a vertical rectangle can be seen in figure 8 below. The flow of the streamlines that collide with the center of the rectangle does not flow past the rectangle. This causes a stagnation point and allows the streamline around it to flow along the rectangle and over the top and bottom of the
Driveways are paved and maintained. A dirt or gravel driveway most likely will be rutted so vehicles would bottom out and kick dust into your self storage unit. Any water is directed away from your storage unit and into drainage areas. 3. Are the grounds taken care of?
A highway pavement is a structure consisting of superimposed layers of processed materials above the natural soil sub-grade, whose primary function is to distribute the applied vehicle loads to the sub-grade. The pavement structure should be able to provide a surface of acceptable riding quality, adequate skid resistance, favorable light reflecting characteristics, and low noise pollution. The ultimate aim is to ensure that the transmitted stresses due to wheel load are sufficiently reduced, so that they will not exceed bearing capacity of the sub- grade. Two types of pavements are generally recognized as serving this purpose, namely flexible pavements and rigid pavements. This gives an overview of pavement types, layers and their functions, cost analysis.
An array of pipes, canals, and pumping stations managed by our public water systems are needed to bring a reliable supply of water to our taps each day. Based on Statistics, three fourth of the earth surface is covered by the water however there is lack of drinking water on the earth (only 1 %). Each human body consists of 75% water which make clear that how the water is important for us as a prime element and
This water is not returned properly back to these systems through any solid mechanism. The flow of our many precious and pristine rivers has been reduced or seasonally altered over the years resulting in changing the size and frequency of floods, the length and severity of droughts and adversely affecting these ecosystems. Modifications to flows in our water body systems for flood protection, hydropower production or irrigation may have significant positive development impacts but it also badly affects those who live in the floodplains and wetlands watered by floods. It also affects groundwater dependent ecosystems, which are replenished through river seepage. So altering the natural flow pattern by damming, diverting or channelling water takes a serious toll on the plants and animals that depend on it.
surface runoff happen when the rainfall intensity exceeds the soil’s infiltration capacity while saturation excess surface runoff is due to waterlogged on the soil where the soil no longer possess storage for any additional rainfall (Dunne & Black, 1970; Dunne, 1983). For the landscape which is prone to VSA hydrology, climatic variables used to determined the nature and extend of surface runoff (Cooper, 2010). c. Urban Runoff Urban runoff refers to any storm water and non-storm water runoff where it is a surface runoff of rainwater created by urbanization. Urban runoff usually contributes to the major source of urban flooding and urban water pollution. EPA define urban runoff as a storm water that come from city street and adjacent domestic or commercial properties which carries various kind of pollutant into the sewer system and receiving water.