It bthe type of parasitic infection by tapeworm. This is one of common disease occur in most areas of the world. It also require two hosts, definitive host-carnivores and intermediate hosts- sheep and cattle. Humans are accidental hosts, because they are a dead end of this infection. Humans are infected by handling soil, dirt or animal hair that contains eggs of this tapeworm..In humans they are localized in the liver in most of the cases and in other organs of bodies such as spleen, brain heart and kidney.
It includes more than 2,400 distinct serotypes, most of which show little specificity for their host species. However, certain S. enterica and S. enterica serovars are found in a particular host in which they cause diseases. Salmonella Typhimurium is also the causative agent of avian salmonellosis in wild birds, a nonenteric disease. Although S. Typhimurium is typically thought to have a wide host range, strain-host relationships Salmonella Typhimurium causes the majority of avian salmonellosis outbreaks and can cause high mortality rates in affected songbirds and aquatic birds. The epidemiology of S. Typhimurium and the population impacts of salmonellosis for group of birds; however, reports indicate that incidents of avian salmonellosis are on the
The most negative effect of having an exotic animals is Disease threat. This threat both of the exotic animal and the humans. The wild exotic animals can carry diseases that are dangerous to people such as rabies, virus and even the Monkey Pox that affected dozens of people in the Midwest in 2003, it was traced to a Gambian rat from Africa. Also, because of people who contact with reptiles and other exotic animals, there is for 74,000 cases of salmonellosis each year. A study in Archives of Disease in Childhood reported that children infected with salmonella from contact with reptiles were more likely to develop serious bacterial diseases than children who contracted salmonella from other sources (2015).
Each year about 100 people die. (www.cdc.gov/Chickenpox) Chart About How Many People Had Chickenpox From 1989-2001 This chart shows the number of people that had the chickenpox from the year 1989 – 2001. This chart shows that the number of people with chickenpox
Herpes Zoster(shingles) also known as the reactivation of the Varicella-Zoster virus. Varicella-Zoster virus is another word for the chickenpox. Chickenpox is mainly describe as a childhood infectious disease. If you have developed chickenpox there is a chance you can develop Herpes Zoster. This disease is often presented in elderly because there cellular Immunity is reduced.
This is an enveloped circular ds DNA virus, genus orthohepadnavirus, and family hepadnaviridae. It is a specific virus that causes Hepatitis. The HBV virus multiplies with in the host cells and during their escape, host cells are destroyed causing acute to severe damage of the liver. Mode of transmission: (Center for disease control and prevention, 2013 Division of viral hepatitis) records indicated one of the most common way of HBV virus transmission from one person to another is through mucosal contact with infectious person’s blood or body fluids through sexual intercourse uninfected person. PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF HEPATITIS B IN THE UNITED STATES.
However, the pill went on to cause more than 10,000 babies to be born with birth defects (Science). Thousands of babies had deformities because tests on hamsters and rats showed the pill to be effective. Additionally, “Animal tests on the arthritis drug Vioxx showed that it had a protective effect on the hearts of mice, yet the drug went on to cause more than 25,000 heart attacks and sudden cardiac deaths before being pulled from the market” (Vioxx). Animal testing is extremely misleading in the medical field. Scientists attempt to link the results of testing drugs on animals to its effectiveness on humans.
Introduction: Helicobacter pylori are a ubiquitous organism that can be seen in 50% of general population. Its association with various gastric disorders are well established in numerous studies after its discovery in 1983. Peptic ulcer disease is the most studied disease related to H Pylori infection. H. pylori are seen in 90% of duodenal ulcer and 75% of gastric ulcer Patients. This bacterium is also involved in the pathogenesis of several extra gastric diseases, such as mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas ( Maltomas) gastroesophageal reflux disease ( GERD ) and gastric carcinomas.
Foodborne diseases are serious and growing problem. Foodborne diseases cause an estimated 76 million illnesses, 325,000 hospitalizations, and 5,000 deaths in the United States each year. 1 These illnesses are caused by food or beverages that contain harmful bacteria, parasites, viruses, or chemicals whish impair the gastrointestinal track (GI). Physician or health care professionals are the best person to make a diagnosis on person who are suspected to have the disease. Most foodborne illnesses are acute, meaning they happen suddenly but are mainly mild and cause symptoms for only a day or two.
Introduction The risk of infection among patients and dental health care personnel through dental practice is rare. However, transmissions of infectious agents in dental settings, including patient-to-patient transmissions have been documented from 2003 to 2016.  It was reported that in June 20, 2013, patients who received treatment in an oral surgery clinic in Tulsa, Oklahoma, were tested for blood-borne pathogens, 74 tested positive for hepatitis C, 5 for hepatitis B, and 3 for HIV. This facility was believed to have exposed as many as 7000 patients to HIV, hepatitis B and hepatitis C over a 6-year period, due to numerous violations of infection control protocols, including unsanitary and unsafe conditions, improper dispensing
The CDC estimates the every year, approximately 48 million American experience a foodborne illness, resulting in 128,000 hospitalization and 3000 deaths. Eight known pathogens account for the vast majority of those estimates. Those pathogens are Norovirus, Salmonella, Campylobacter, Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogens, Staphylococcus aureus, Toxoplasma gondi. Norovirus is every contagious virus. You ca get the virus through an infected person, contaminated food or water.
Escherichia Coli 0157:H7 This paper will specialize on a specific type of bacterial foodborne illness caused by the bacteria Escherichia Coli. E. coli was discovered by Theodore von Escherich in 1885. E.coli is a natural found bacteria that lies throughout the intestinal tract of warm blooded animals and comes in many forms only one of which is deadly. This form is E. coli 0157:H7 which can be caused by direct exposure to fecal matter to kill this rouge E.coli the contaminated material must be cooked at 160 degrees Fahrenheit or higher. In the United States every year 73,000 people are afflicted with this rouge E.coli in which an average of 61 people die.
Both outbred and inbred nude mice are susceptible to MmuPV1 infection at different cutaneous sites. MmuPV1 infection was initiated at cutaneous sites including the muzzle, the tail, and the back. The lesions on the tail appear earlier than those at the muzzle. When compared with muzzle and tail sites, the back is the least susceptible site. Interestingly, secondary back skin infection can be found in many animals that were initially infected at mucosal sites indicating a self-infection was efficient to grow tumors in nude mice.
Conversely, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli are both coliforms, which are able to ferment lactose. Of the Enterobacteriaceae family, there are genera that are in the normal human flora. Some species such as K. pneumoniae and E. coli are opportunistic pathogens which can capitalize on weakened host defenses and cause food poisoning (Baron, 1996). S. enterica secrete proteins that help aid in intracellular invasion and proliferation (Hensel, 2009). K. pneumoniae is a part of the normal human mouth, skin, and intestine flora, but can wreak havoc if inhaled (Ryan,
One of the viruses mentioned in “The Hot Zone” that significantly contributes to the Ebola virus disease (EVD) is the Marburg virus disease (MARV) is rare but a severe hemorrhagic fever. This virus can affect both humans and non-human primates. It was first recognized in nineteen sixty-seven after a few outbreaks in Marburg and Frankfurt, Germany