Research Paper On Salmonella

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Introduction : The genus Salmonella belongs to the family Enterobacteriaceae (bacteria living in the intestine) and consists of two species, Salmonella enterica and Salmonella bongori (CCFH June 2007). Over 2500 Salmonella enterica serotypes are recognized, and all are regarded as capable of producing disease in humans. Worldwide, salmonellosis is a leading cause of enteric infectious disease attributable to foods. Salmonella cause serious systemic or enteric diseases in animals and humans, Illnesses caused by the majority of Salmonella serotypes range from mild to severe gastroenteritis, and in some people, bacteraemia, septicaemia and a variety of associated longer-term conditions. A wide range of foods has been implicated in food-borne…show more content…
However, foods of animal origin, especially poultry and poultry products, including eggs, have been consistently implicated in sporadic cases and outbreaks of human salmonellosis (WHO and FAO, 2002). Salmonellae are gram-negative, most of the salmonellae are motile bacteria that use flagella to move. Some serotypes like S. Gallinarum or S. Pullorum are non-motile, facultatively anaerobic bacteria (D’Aoust, 1997). Salmonellae grow between 8°C and 45°C, and at a pH of 4 to 8. With the exception of a limited number of human-host-adapted serotypes (also referred to as the typhoidal salmonellae), the members of the genus Salmonella are regarded as zoonotic or potentially zoonotic (Acha and Szyfres, 2001). ). S. gallinarum and S. pullorun affect poultry, causing fowl typhoid and pullorum disease respectively. Poultry may be infected by many types of Salmonella, often as symptomless carriers. S. typhimurium, S. Virchow and many serotypes are commonly incriminated in cases of human food poisoning caused by poorly cooked fresh…show more content…
Enteritidis was responsible for the largest number of food-borne outbreaks, cases and deaths reported in the United States of America (Bean et al., 1997). In 2006, Salmonella was the main cause of reported outbreaks of food borne infection in the European Union (EU) ( Le Bouquin et al. (2010). In K.S.A. the reported cases of human salmonellosis has decreased from 1336 cases in 1990 and then increased gradually to reach 2197 cases in 1995 and decreased again to 1927 cases in the year 2001 (M.H,1990-2001). The isolation of Salmonella serovars from poultry and its environment were reported before in KS.A. (Barbour and Nabbut., 1982;, Barbour et al., 1983; AL-Nakhli et al., 1999). Saad (2007) conducted a study in 26 poultry farms located at the central region of KSA during the years 2002-2004 to detect the prevalence of Salmonella in live chickens, poultry farms environment, broiler carcasses and to identify the existing Salmonella serovars in addition to the possible causes or sources responsible for transmission of infection or contamination. Salmonellae could be found in the, water, vegetation and in many cold and warm blooded vertebrates including humans, animals, birds, fishes, rodents and insects (Nagaraja et a/., 1999).They can also be found as contaminant in many types of food such as red meat, fish, poultry, eggs, milk, milk products, vegetables, fruits, cereals, cereal products, frozen foods and foods for infants and children (Brooks et a/., 2001, Refai, 1979

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