If any criticisms were made towards the ruler, it was considered as a sin and hence the prosecutor must be punished (Johan, 2014). However, the Sedition Act 1948 was enacted by the British colonial government which was before the Federation of Malaya achieved independence to combat the communists (Ng, 2014). Sedition Act 1948 has 11 sections and the important sections are Section 3 which is the seditious tendency and Section 4 which is the offences. Under Section 4 in Sedition Act 1948 states that if the person who attempts to do any act which has a seditious tendency, expresses any seditious words, prints or distributes any seditious publication or even imports any seditious publication will be guilty of an offence and shall be convicted. The prosecutor will be fine not exceeding five thousand Ringgit or imprisonment not more than 3 years.
The reason why it is a manifold sin is because it is a lie which is a greater sin. Then, falsely accusing a Muslim is also a greater sin and lastly, it is involved in oppressing an innocent person which is another greater sin. Again, Allah prohibited thus who making unlawful thing lawful and acquire something which does not rightfully belong to him through a false witness and the witness also WAJIB to sure the fact before he
The judges were empowered to try political cases without jury. The act in curtailed all the liberties of Indians in the name of curbing terrorist or anti- government activities. Mahatma Gandhi said, “They are striking demonstration of the civil services to retain its grip on our necks. It considers the bills to be an open challenge to us”. “Pandit Motilal Nehru said the essence of bills were no vakil, no dalil, no appeal.
In 1798, President John Adams passed the Alien and Sedition Acts containing three parts: the Alien, Sedition, and Naturalization Acts. The Alien Act allowed the president to deport any immigrant that he found dangerous to the nation; the Sedition Act made it a crime to criticize the government; and the Naturalization Act lengthened the citizenship process. All of these acts were repealed by 1802 due to all of their negative impacts and influence on society. The Alien and Sedition Acts adversely impacted the nation through the deprivation of human rights, leading to protests. The acts took away the rights declared in the first amendment: freedom of speech and freedom of the press.
anti-human rights), breach a moral or social code (e.g., profanity, vulgarity) or outrage the moral or physical senses (e.g., gratuitous use of violence, use of disgusting images). In the Western countries, advertising that are offensive refers to the presentation of misleading information, persuasion to buy unnecessary products and promotion of undesirable and harmful values. Offensive advertising also can be defined as irritating or intrusive that are related to sex and decency issues, advertisement that are targeted to only a certain group of people, shocking appeals and also feminism criticism (Dahl, et al., 2003). Also, a similar definition of offensive advertising is “advertisement that can triggers the reaction of embarrassment, distaste, disgust, offence or outrage from a segment of the population when presented” (Waller, 2004) In the Eastern countries in contrast, the types of offensive advertisement are such as using images, or chants to arouse sensitive issues for section of the target audience that violates the religious norms and can shock people and interpret as a
The announcement of the governor and the council stated that the Publick Occurrences contains "[...] Reflections of a very high nature: As also sundry doubtful and uncertain Reports, do hereby manifest and declare their high Resentment and Disallowance of said Pamphlet, and Order that the same be Suppressed and called in [...]" (Clark, 1991, p.374-375). The reasons behind this act were multifaceted: a missing license, disapproval of content as well as worry about the idea of "free press" were the main arguments (Sloan, 1993). This is not surprising in times of rebellion and social and political chaos. During this period, the authority of the government was already questioned; a critical publication like the Publick Occurrences was not to be
If for any reason anonymity and confidentiality cannot be granted it should be stated clearly before proceeding with the interview, as misleading/misinforming its source(s) should lead to the termination of the media personnel and media houses licenses for the offense of misguiding its source(s). Consequently, for breaches of anonymity and confidentiality agreement made between both parties (media houses/personnel and source) they should find themselves encountering a law suit for the misdemeanor. Laurence (1992). In addition to that the suspension of broadcast licenses should be implemented to ensure that personnel “practice what they preach”, that is they should follow through with their end of the agreement, to preserve and control the privacy, trust and confidentiality between its sources for their own safety and or
So in different countries like France, Belgium, and other Hijab has been banned because of political issue or religionism. The "burqa ban" was introduced by Dutch parliament, and has clearly announced ban on Hijab or Burqa. Some countries are thinking to ban the Hijab. As seen in all of
India is neither signatory to the 1951 UN Convention on Refugees nor the 1967 Protocol. It has led the Indian government to adopt ad hoc approach due to lack of specific refugee legislation in India. This arbitrary executive mechanism makes it more arbitrary leading to benefits of legal residence and employment to only certain religious minority groups. Due to absence of codified law with respect to refugee rights, the status of refugees rests only with the political and administration of the state in power. The existing laws which would come close to refugee rights are mainly the Foreigners Act 1946 and the Citizenship Act 1955.
Reference can be made to Sections 292 and 293 of the Indian Penal Code. Section 292 prohibits the sale of obscene material viz., books, pamphlets, papers, writings, drawings, paintings, representations, figures or any other object. These shall be deemed obscene shall be deemed to be obscene if they are lascivious or appeals to the pruri¬ent interest or if its effect tend to deprave and corrupt person, who are likely to read, see or hear the matter contained therein. The Section further enlists the acts which are covered within the scope of the section and prescribes penalty/ punishment for the same. The section prescribes that on first conviction the penalty shall be im¬prisonment of either description for a term which may extend to two years, and with fine which may extend to two thousand rupees, and, in the event of a second or subsequent conviction, the