Hence, ATC40 serves as guideline for the starting of seismic evaluation process. Federal Emergency Management Agency document 356 (FEMA356)2 contains simplified nonlinear analysis procedure (pushover analysis) to determine the displacements demand imposed on the building expected to inelastically and the conversion of the results to the capacity diagram are based only on the fundamental vibration mode of the elastic
John  studied rock fragmentation using a two-dimensional nonlinear finite element simulation of advanced rock breaking, and found that when the cutting angle was negative, the rock breaking occurred because of the shear failure mode, and when the cutting angle was positive, it occurred because of shear and tensile failure mode. E. Kim  discussed the importance of pick rotation. In order to study the effects of cutting intercept, cutting depth, impact angle, inclination angle, and other relevant parameters, full-size experimental investigations were performed. Zhou  explored the means by which
Firstly, we are heroes to our children and loved ones who expect us to come home every day. Secondly, we are the super heroes who keep the lights burning at the homes and workplaces in our communities. Real super heroes know that Safety Must Always Relate To Yourself (SMARTY), and going forward, we will be recognising those who display extraordinary dedication to the cause by awarding them with a SUPER HERO badge. We look forward to applauding our super heroes in upcoming editions of this newsletter. **** A MESSAGE FROM MOSES It gives me great pleasure to formally welcome you all back to work!
These blasts reflected positive pressures are applied to the front side of building in the form of blast force. These blast forces can be obtained by multiplying the pressures with the contributing area of each node. A sample calculation for forces acting on the nodes due to blast weight of 100kg at standoff distance of 20m is shown below, i) For node no 83; Positive pressure= 137.3 kPa Blast force P83 = 0.1373x0.25x1000= 34.32kN ii) For node no 86; Positive pressure = 80.8 kPa Blast force P86 = 0.0808x0.5x1000 = 40.4 kN iii) For node no 89; Positive pressure = 56.1 kPa Blast force P89 = 0.0561x0.5x1000 = 28.50kN iv) For node no 80; Positive pressure = 42.5 kPa Blast force P80 = 0.0425x0.25x1000 = 10.63
Non-linear static analysis should be performed where effects of higher modes are not significant. To find out the significance of higher modes, modal response spectrum analysis is performed. If more accurate results are desired and degradation of stiffness with respect to time is also need to be considered than non-linear dynamic analysis is performed. Ref: Pre-standard and commentary for the seismic rehabilitation of buildings, By American Society of Civil Engineers Federal Emergency Management Agency Codes Equivalent Static
For instance, in Imamura et al (2012), the authors produced hazard maps based on a single earthquake event — a sample less representational than one in which several historical earthquakes were included. Estimating a realistic evacuation clearance time depends not only on the results of a hazard analysis, but also on the results of vulnerability and behavioral analyses; both of these, together, provide details of the demographic variables that significantly affect evacuation clearance time (Charnkol and Tanaboriboon, 2006; Post et al,
The lateral load arising from an earthquake is transferred into the infill from the surrounding frame. The mass of infill is accounted in the practices but the stiffness contribution is usually ignored. Therefore, infilled frame is usually designed as bare frame treating infill as non-structural component and the lateral load is assumed to be completely resisted by the skeletal frame. This leads to a significantly different response. When the columns receive horizontal forces at floor levels, they try to sway in the horizontal direction, but masonry walls help to resist this movement.
The consequences of the lack of such knowledge are costly. An example will be the complete loss of the Piper Alpha Oil Rig platform and the 167 personnel onboard after a hydrocarbon explosion. The best form of protection is prevention. However, when this is not possible or cannot be anticipated, a comprehensive assessment on the structural characteristic and response against such impact loading must be
We are starting to make earthquake proof buildings now an high risk earthquake zones so there will be less damage and less people harmed. There is no real way to predict an earthquake so it is best to be precautious for people’s safety. I believe that we can make a device that we can put in the ground at each earthquake hotspot location to detect if an earthquake is on it’s way. This will not give people time to get out of the zone but it will notify them so they can
Greetings Let me say a warm welcome to all of you who are my guests today including my family members. I must say that your presence on this my Graduation Day makes the occasion very special. We are all gathered here to give thanks to God for this is His doing and it’s marvelous in our eyes. Before I make few remarks concerning my journey this far, allow me to thank most sincerely the Almighty God for this far I can say like Samuel in 1 Samuel :12, “Ebenezer; Thus far the LORD Has Helped Me.". He has been with me in thick and thin and it’s due to his grace and love I am who I am today.