Jellyfish have external reproduction, where they release the egg and the sperm into the water to meet each other. As they mature the fertilized eggs reproduce asexually by cloning themselves. The methods used by the earthworms and jellyfish both offer an opportunity for predators to eat the offspring before they can
The two types of cell division processes are mitosis and meiosis. Mitosis is the process where somatic, or non-reproductive, cells are created, while Meiosis is the process that creates gametes, reproductive cells like sperm and eggs. Before discoursing these processes, one must discuss the different forms of genetic material. These are essentially the three forms of a cell’s genetic material. Chromatin is its loosest, least-organized form, which floats freely around inside the nuclear envelope.
According to MicroPop yeast can reproduce sexually in this way: In sexual reproduction, a single yeast cell undergoes meiosis and produces haploid spores; these spores can recombine with other haploid spores, producing a diploid cell – the yeast’s “normal” state. And lastly stated by BBC: Like bacteria, yeast cells reproduce asexually. However, they do this by producing a bud. This is a new cell that eventually breaks away from the parent cell.
Bivalves are laterally compressed, and their two shells are held together dorsally by a hinge ligament that causes the valves to gape ventrally. The valves of sea clam are drawn together by adductor muscles that work in opposition to the hinge ligament. The umbo is the oldest part of the shell and growth occurs in concentric lines around it. Sea clams are commonly found in the intertidal zone, where there is a sand and mud places. Bivalvia are Byssus, they loss of radula and there shell are lateral compression of the body.
A compendium on Cellular Cannibalism Introduction Cellular cannibalism is defined as the ability of a cell to engulf or phagocytise another cell of its own type or any other. It was first described by Leyden in 1904 and referred them as “bird – eye cells”. They are also known as “signet-ring cells”, due to their appearance.   Cannibalistic cells were initially noticed in cytological smears where the cell had ingested another cell – consisted of a vacuole with the ingested cell and this vacuole pushed the nucleus to the periphery. 
Fragmentation is a type of asexual reproduction strategy which use the breaking part of the body to regenerate a new copy of the organism by regrowing the missing part of the body. If more than one piece grows and develops into a complete animal, then the net effect is reproduction. For example, starfish is a kind of organism that uses this strategy to reproduce. When a part of the starfish separates from the body it will eventually become another new starfish after it grows all its missing parts back. Worms, sponges and sea squirts are the other examples of living organisms that use
Townsend et al. (2008) 1. Most animals are unitary organisms; they are both genetically and physiologically separate and therefore these individuals can be easily recognised or set apart. Unitary organisms develop from zygote to adult with determinant form – not modified by environmental conditions. On the other hand, modular organisms form new functional modules (ramets – subunit of the genet that is physiologically viable as an autonomous fragment) from a single genetically unique individual (the genet).
After fertilization, the uterus develops embryo instead of eggs. Most of them exhibit sexual reproduction by cross fertilization. The live young are reproduced by Russian doll fashion. They already contain a full embryo in uterus, and within this embryo, another embryo is developed, and also in this embryo, another one is developed. The first-born daughter is born 24 hours after the birth of the mother, and after 24 hours, this daughter reproduces and so on.
All nuclear receptors have a distinctive feature in which classifies them separately to other receptors in the body. This distinctive feature is the nuclear receptors’ binding domains, of which there are two. The first binding domain is the zinc finger-based DNA binding domain which has a unique function in which it couples the hormone response
Introduction Polyploidy is an inherited condition whereby the organism possesses more than 2 complete sets of chromosomes. It is common amongst plants and some fish and amphibians. Advantages of polyploidy include the fact that they are able to use their genes function in other ways that are not necessarily needed in non-polyploidy organisms which allows them to evolve in many different ways. Another way is by disrupting certain self-incompatibility systems, thereby allowing self-fertilization. However there are disadvantages to it as well, such as being problematic for meiosis and mitosis.
Metabolism The daphnia’s main composition consists of a midgut, hindgut and an esophagus running from its head down its body, using one compound eye as an aid in swimming. The position of the heart is right above where the location of eggs in the females back. The water flea’s usual food source is
2- Compare and contrast these types of eyes: Microvilli VS Cilia : Cilia : is a microscopic hair like structure that are found is almost all mammalian cell. Microvilli: microscopic cellular membrane which increase surface area of the cell, it has couple of functions such as cellular adhesion, absorption and secretion. protostomes VS deuterostomes: Protostomes: it 's a pore that is formed during embryonic developments which becomes the mouth.
2. How does DNA replicate itself? In order to replicate itself, DNA undergoes DNA replication, a process in which the DNA unwinds and splits in two. From that point on, new nucleotides are added to each of the original strands (A to T, C to G) until the result is two identical sequence copies of DNA.
Throughout Aldous Huxley’s Brave New World (1932) he underscores the problems associated with artificial reproduction in the New World through lack of emotional driven sex, lack of individuality and loss of respect for human spirituality. One of the fundamental questions posed by Huxley is “Do humans want to be happy or to be free?”. The answer to the question in regard to artificial reproduction is found when Mr. Foster states, “[In] the vast majority of cases, fertility is merely a nuisance” (Huxley 13). Mr. Foster makes it apparent that fertility interferes with the hedonistic happiness of those alive in the New World. Mr. Foster outlines the importance of artificial reproduction in relation to happiness when he says “Guaranteed sterile.
1. Do you think Handmaids Tail can compare to our society in the aspect that many women are not able to truly be themselves or use their bodies in any way they wish to? 2. How would you view and live in a society if you were a Handmaid or a wife? 3.