Essay On Slum

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could not afford the cost of relocation and new apartment. The urban center become deprived of new social amenities and existing ones lacking in maintenance.

2.5 MIGRATION AND SETTLEMENT DIMENSION TO SPATIAL EXCLUSION
To guarantee the likelihood of family units taking up active role in real estate market, Van Kampen (2007) asserted that this likelihood will depend on economic resources (in terms of income and fixed capital resources), intellectual adeptness and education attainment, political awareness and social integration within the society. To have the afforementioned variable within a global city, Fisher (1976) in his book “The Urban Experience” noted that race and ethnicity plays important roles. Sassen (2001) took the same position as Fisher, stating that high heterogeneity ethnical composition of city are most likely
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It was used to define houses of the poorest quality and within an unsanitary living environment. These types of environment were considered a haven and refuge for outlaw and associated with criminal vices, drug abuse and having a high probability of epidemic outbreak. In the 19th century literatures, the word slum appeared as “back-slum” in all written form; usually in quotation marks. By the end of the 19th century, it was ascribed and defines street, alley, and court in a crowed area of the city; housing people in the lower class stratification (Habitat, 2003).

Slum became an operational concept during the housing reform movement of 1880s in England. It then describes in terms of material composition which are unfit for human habitation. The housing reform movement of 1880s in England made the delimitation of slum areas on city map possible and available for city planning. Ever since, it has become a common word in most English speaking nations across the globe (Habitat,

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