In observation, the doughs which are made from wheat flour and whole wheat flour are baked at different temperature which are 150 °C, 190 °C, 220 °C will have the different texture for crust and the crumb in 10 minutes, 20 minutes or 30 minutes. For the
What is gluten? Gluten is a composite protein formed by two storage proteins, namely gliadin and glutenin. This protein has different purposes in food production. During the process of fermentation of bread, for example, gluten contained in wheat flour is responsible for the retention of gas within the dough. This causes the bread volume to increase and not shrink after cooling down.
DO YOU KNOW HEALTHY SNACKS? Smart snacking snacks When it comes to snacks, you have some important choices to make. The unhealthy snack options contain additional calories and do not give you much support for your well-being. Instead clever snacks offer benefits that can help reduce your waistline. Sweets, chips, and other junk foods are a major source of empty calories.
Although the sodium content reaches 90% of RDA, most of the sodium in the sauces are not ingested. Some of the nutrients are considered insufficient in this menu. The menu only provides 20% of RDA of vitamin B12. It is recommended to meet the daily requriement by adding vitamin B12 rich food (e.g. cheddar cheese and cow milk) to other meals .
The bread prepared was designated as B1 and B2 respectively. They were tested for moisture, ash, protein, fat, crude fiber as per the standard methods. The Physico-chemical and sensory parameters of these two test bread were compared with a control bread 100% wheat flour designated as B0. Results showed that BP flour were owing 11.20% crude fiber which is higher than the wheat flour 1.21%. Also, BP flour has high potassium, calcium, sodium, iron and manganese as compared with wheat flour.
The most common ingredients in baking bread are flour, salt, sugar, margarine, warm water, and yeast (The Science of BREAD). There are other substitutes for this simple recipe like using baking soda. After adding all of the ingredients together one by one, you are left with an ooey-gooey substance. Now this substance must sit and rest while it rises, or ferments (Planets in a Bottle - more about yeast). The one very important ingredient that makes this happen is the single-celled fungus, yeast (Science of Bread: Bread Science 101 | Exploratorium).
The kernels are also bigger and more vitreous than those of wheat of bread. The endosperm of durum has about double the amont of xanthophylls or luteins (not carotene) pigments when compared to that of bread wheat (Sims and Lepage 1968) Unlike bread wheat, durums are grown solely for human food, and many different kinds products of food are available. These include pasta (spaghetti, lasagna, elbow macaroni) used all over the world, and some other conventional foods, such as couscous, bulgur, puffed cereals, hot cereals, desserts, single- and two-layered flat bread, leavened bread, and noodles (Dick and Matsuo 1988). In the areas of West Asia and North Africa, =15% of the durum wheat is used in the form of products of pasta; 50% is processed into single- and two-layered flat breads and the remaining is used for breads by leveaning. For example, in Lebanon, Jordan,Syria etc, durum flour is widely used alone or blended with other flours to produce these flatting breads (Williams et al 1984, 1988).
Explain the benefits of food additives. Additives are substances added to food to help extend shelf life, improve/add nutritional value which are lost during processing, enhance flavour and appearance for presentation, and to prevent micro-organisms growing to foods that are processed. In the olden times people used to eat from fresh produce like picking up fruits and vegetables from their backyard/ farm; we use to grind/mill our own flour from our harvest of wheat and from it, we baked our own bread. People even used to produce their own beer and wine. As time passed by, food spoilage and food poisoning has been main concerns of people producing food in mass; cooked food and fresh vegetables rot and ended up in the bin as they are not fit for human consumption after a short period of time.
Since then, a variety of methods have been developed in making leaven. This practice required the fermentation of hops and scalded malt for at least two to three days. As time goes by, the expeditious way had been discovered which could reduce the fermentation process from eighteen to three to four hours by utilizing small amount of chemicals in bread of flour(2). There are two main methods of making bread; traditional method (Bulk Fermentation Process) and modern commercial method (Chorleywood Bread Process)(3). Both methods have advantages in applying in the large scale of industrial.