Social Exclusion In Identity Work Among The Homeless

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High levels of criminal and anti-social behaviour, may provide young men with alternative claims to power, however it can simultaneously exacerbate the levels of social exclusion experienced by their communities. It is not unusual for residents from Limerick's estates to experience discrimination when it comes to applying for work, school places and grinds. Limerick resident Stacey told a typical story: I wanted to get my daughter maths grinds for the leaving and I rang the teacher and she said fine until I told her the address and then she checked her diary and said she didn't think she could fit her in. Two weeks later, I got the child's aunt to ring the same woman giving her own address and she took her on, no problem (Hourigan, 2011, p.66).
Norbert Elias and Jonathon Scotson (1994) explored the effects of social exclusion in The established and the outsiders. The authors noted
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The authors argued that the homeless tend to be viewed and discussed primarily in terms of the problems they are thought to have (e.g., cultural deprivation, and mental disorders), the problems they are thought to pose for the larger community (e.g., crime and welfare), or the problems associated with their material survival (e.g., food, shelter, and clothing). Their inner life, the authors asserted, and particularly the problem of generating and maintaining a sense of meaning and self-worth, is rarely a matter of concern. In response to this insight, the authors researched how individuals at the bottom of status systems can generate a sense of self that can grant them with a measure of self-esteem and dignity. Their concept 'identity work' sheds light on the various ways that homeless street people construct and negotiate personal identities (Snow, Anderson,
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