In large part, it looks at how environmentally vulnerable an area is, and compares that with the vulnerability of the people. Using a social vulnerability index would be more beneficial to understanding the population because it allows for more variance within any given status group. Our current mode of thinking is based on heuristics, and a way to define, differentiate and categorize; thus our categories, e.g., lower-class, middle-class, and high-class, are limited. If we were to use an SVI to assess the population, we would likely see differences depending on the communities demographics, geographical location, and social support. Under this theory, we would see dissimilarities between two people with an identical SES title (Lin and Hung 2016).
What is social vulnerability? The idea of social vulnerability inside the emergency management setting was first presented in the 1970’s when emergency managers first realized that vulnerability also encompasses socioeconomic influences that negatively impact resiliency to disasters or emergencies. Form the perspective of an emergency manager social vulnerability refers to the socioeconomic and demographic factors that impact the resiliency of individuals, groups or communities. It has been well established that not all classes of individuals living within a disaster area are affected by the disaster in the same way. The socially vulnerable are much more likely to be negatively impacted by a disaster.
Residential segregation is when different groups of people live in different neighborhoods, often based on level of income or race. There are a few causes contributing to this problem, which result in consequences. There is also the question of opportunity. Some black people will never have the opportunity to move out of black neighborhoods and into multi-racial neighborhoods because of the difference in quality of education, healthcare and the problem of crime (Pappas, 2012). In this section, we will be discussing the residential segregation associated with race and the various factors contributing to the cause of this separation to help us answer our problem formulation.
However, this may not always be the case, as the rates of unemployment and poverty soar in South Africa. 54% of the South African population are found in poverty (Lilenstein, Woolard & Liebbrandt; 2016: 193). Through this we find that it may not be the fault of a single individual but rather the country or the community. People who live in poverty may live that way because of age, nationality or ill health, these problems are not choices made by the individual and can therefore be seen as a social
The diathesis stress model is useful with regards to social work practice, especially in areas of psychological disorder or mental health such as depression (Salomon, 2013). It describes how psychological disorder arises from interaction between genetic factors and environmental stress (Salomon, 2013). The genetic vulnerability to a psychological disorder is called diathesis and it includes physiology, genetic makeup, personality or combination of all those (Salomon, 2013). This theory suggests that the likelihood or severity of a disorder increases with greater stress. In other words, if the individual has high genetic vulnerability to the disorder, it would take lower levels of stress to trigger a disorder.
Social Problems in Societies Social problems are issues which are considered to affect majority if not all members of a society either directly or indirectly. Whenever people come to live together in a social setting, conflict arises from their differences in opinions regarding political issues, religion, ethnic issues, cultural practices and other health and hygiene issues. In such a situation, we can say a society inevitably develops social problems. The various social issues present today vary from society to society, and as such, we cannot say that all societies face similar social issues. Social problems facing the societies encompass economic, political and human life issues within society.
Is procedural or moral justice applicable for this aim? Based on theories of inclusive of behavioral, societal and interpersonal psychology, the most influential to reducing recidivism is that of restorative justice. Moral justice reflects the perceptions and moral values of its social structure else face not only resistance to comply but a reduction in the social perception regarding the legitimacy of their authority. The major differences between the current justice model and restorative justice models is a shift in focus from satisfying generalized social justice to satisfying micro-justice as well. This has allowed greater involvement for victims regarding procedures, requirements for restitution and a voice in sentencing as well as opportunities to communicate with the offender in a personal manner (Cialdini, 2007).
One suggestion is to provide equal opportunity for everyone regardless of social status. Another recommendation is to decrease the gap by increasing job opportunities, work programs, and educational opportunities to reach a balance social structure. In retrospect, social disorganization theory policy needs to focus on improvement of high crimes neighborhood with an increase in social, political, economic networks and resources (Bayens, pg. 71)”. To provide a more positive environment, there need to be a stoppage of neighborhood decay through increase educational organized activities, communities development (i.e.
The results showed that dense social network could convey both positive and negative effects on formal and informal social control. Legitimate residents’ network would enhance the informal supervision while gang members and drug dealers would undermine the legality of the community through their social networks. In Pattillo’s own words: “Neighborhood social organization does not exist as an absolute value, but represents a continuum, the ends of which are complete chaos or utopia (pp.770).” Many times, our communities are swinging between these two extremes, and it is our responsibility to further study, though with difficulties, the mechanism behind this intricate relationship, for the sake of promoting our society and protecting it from “the living
As a member of society, one is expected to relate to others in a mutually understandable ways and be able to engage in the day-to-day obligations and roles. However, such expectations exceed the person’s physical as well as psychological capacities that may hinder them from presenting themselves conventionally and to act as they want and have to (GERMOV). Hence, society may see them as differing from norm and can be perceived as being mentally ill as illustrated by Psychiatrist Thomas Szasz in his influential book The Myth of Mental Illness (Perone, 2014). Moreover, from a sociological theorist perspective Talcott Parsons, illness is viewed as form of deviance and described illness from a sociological terms as failing in some way to fulfil