Essay On Spartan Government

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In this essay, I would like to answer and discuss the following questions: How did the people in Athens and Sparta obtain the right to participate in public life and make decisions affecting the community? Who held public office? What rules governed the selection of public office holders? How were two city-states similar in their governmental structures and how did they differ with each other?

For the Spartans the right to participate and made important decisions from the entire community were only exercised by the adult and legitimate male citizens of Sparta. Therefore, their parents must be full-blooded Spartans. The form of government of Spartan was military totalitarian. The government governed by the selected few among the legitimate male citizens. In short, to obtain the absolute right to take part in running the political system, one must be born with Spartan parents and it should be an adult male ages 30 and above.

On other hand, to the Athenians all free adult men who
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Ephors were the five magistrates of Spartan. Their term of office was only a year. Their main duties were to administer the Spartan's foreign affairs, judicial system and their armed forces. Aside from that, the Ephors have also the power to declare war to peasants or the "helots," when a rebellion occurs. On other hand, the assembly also elects the Gerousia. They were a group of thirty older men ages sixty years old and above. They served in the office for a lifetime. They were considered as an élite assembly. They were rich and highly influential people of the society. All the important decisions were decided or influence by these group of elders. Among themselves, they will select their kings. Spartans had two kings, however their powers were limited because the Ephors and Gerousia can dictate them what to do. These are the rules that governed in the selection of public office holder in
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