It is a case wherein the extensor tendon that crosses the distal interphalageal joint or DIP responsible for the straightening of the finger is damaged, causing the finger to be deformed. A flexion force applied on the tip of the extended finger pushes the DIP to flex. It usually happens on many athletes. This occurs when an object, for example a ball with a high velocity strikes the finger creating a huge impact to the bones and forcibly bends it. A worse thing can happen, when the force is greater it may pull away a bone along with the tendon.
INTRODUCTION Osteoarthritis of knee joint is supposed to be the most prevalent chronic joint disease. The incidence of osteoarthritis of knee is on a rise because of many factors like complex mechanics of knee joint, high prevalence of obesity and increased life expectancy which leads to increase in number of older individuals. Knee joint is subjected to excessive stress as it is used in almost all activities of daily living. Knee is important for activities like walking, climbing stairs, and rising from a chair, sitting, squatting and other activities. Chronic pain of knee joint may cause inability to perform daily activities.
These consist of the three cuneiform bones, the cuboid bone, and the navicular bone. The hind foot: Itconfigures the heel and the ankle. The talus bone upkeepsthe leg bones (tibia and fibula), creating the ankle. The calcaneus (heel bone) is the biggest bone in your foot. Ligaments, muscles and tendonscourse along the planes of your feet, allowing the complexarrangementsdesirable for movement and steadiness.
Anatomically, the patella is of a disproportionate oval-shaped sesamoid bone which articulates with the femoral sulcus. Its proximal attachment is the quadriceps tendon which envelopes the structure and distally at the apex, the patellar tendon attaches. Both the tendons are functional as to stabilise the patella bone in the knee joint during movements or even when the joint is static. Also, the patellar retinacula are attached to both the medial and lateral sides of the patella. When the tendon is overused chronically without given adequate time to heal, tendinosis known as Jumper’s Knee can occur in response to the damage.
The plantar interossei made with unipennate morphology and dorsal interossei made with bipennate. • There are three plantar interossei muscles in the foot. These muscles adduct digits three to five and help to move the metatarsophalangeal joints. • Four dorsal interossei muscles are found in the foot. And they locate between the metatarsal.
The forearm is a complex anatomical structure between the elbow and the wrist that serves an important function of the upper extremity. The forearm consists of two parallel bones, the radius and the ulna. It forms a functional unit that can be considered both as an axis and a non synovial joint (). This “joint” can be best understood in term of two “condyles”, the distal radio-ulnar joint (DRUJ) and the proximal radioulnar joint (PRUJ) (). The capsule of the elbow joint and the annular ligament stabilize the bones proximally.
The long bone is that it allows movement , particularly in the limbs eg the femur (thigh bone) tibia and fibula (lower leg bones) humerus (upper arm bone), the radius and the ulna (lower arm). Metacarpals (hand bones) metersals (foot bone) and phalanges (finger and toe bone) Functions of the skeleton The skeleton is the framework of the body; it supports the softer tissue and provides point of attachment for most skeletal muscles. The skeleton provides mechanical protection for many of the body’s internal organs, redusing risk of injury to them. Skeletal bones are attached to the muscle contract they cause bone to move, packed with over 200 bones, skeletons protect, shape support and move our bodies as well as producing red blood cells in the bone
It’s a weight-bearing joint that straightens bends, twist and rotates. All this motion increases risk of acute or overuse knee injuries. Acute knee injuries including torn ligaments and torn cartilage are often caused by twisting the knee or falling. Sports that involve running
Typically, it happens when the bone was subjected to impact of more force or pressure than it can withstand. Commonly, broken bone can happen in childhood and mature and late adulthood. Children’s bones are still forming yet in mature and late adulthood, elderly becomes more likely to trip and fall. There are many types of fractures, but the major classes are simple fracture and compound fracture . These fractures can be transverse
How Skeletal and Muscular Systems Connect Together to Create Body Movement Skeletal muscles are attached to bones by tendons, which use the bones as levers to move the body and its parts. Skeletal muscle needs to pass over a joint to create movement. Muscle contraction pulls one bone towards another and thus moves the limb. Muscles never work alone, any movement results from the actions of several muscles. Muscles mostly work in pairs.
Osteoarthritis is also known as a degenerative joint disease and is the most common form of arthritis. With this type of arthritis, the cushion material, or cartilage, in the joints becomes to wear down. Pain is then caused when bones rub against each other. Stiffness, pain and loss of movement could occur in the joints with this of disease . Osteoarthritis is significant because it could occur in people of all ages and there are a number of risk factors including obesity, high impact sports, joint injuries, weak muscles, genetics and the most common one is the increase in age .
Genu Recurvatum, otherwise known as back knee, is hyperextension of the knee. Hyperextension of the knee occurs when the knee joint passes more than 180 degrees. When this happens, the knee can usually pass about 10 to 15 degrees more than the standard degree (Anonymous, 2015). Here, the femur bone leans on the anterior part of the tibia instead of being balanced out (Loudon, Goist, Loudon, 1998). This could cause damage to the soft tissue around it, and increased stress on the knees.
This condition occurs when the top (head) of the fibula separates from the tibia. This type of dislocation happens when a great deal of force is applied to a bent knee. There are four types of proximal tibiofibular joint dislocation: • Type I is an incomplete dislocation (subluxation). • Type II is dislocation of the tibia in a forward and outward direction. This is the most common type.
An Anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL) sprain is one of the most common injuries of the ankle and is a common injury in the fast majority of sports. Ankle sprains account for up to 10-30% of sports injuries. (4…..) The sprain often occurs when the footballer lands on uneven ground, for example the opposing players’ foot, or mis-steps. (5…….) In football the majority of ankle sprains are caused during player contact, resulting in the footballer “rolling over” on their ankle.
The trapezius is a large muscle in the upper back that helps to control the shoulder blade (scapula) and stabilize the spine. Trapezius palsy happens when a nerve (spinal accessory nerve) that connects the spinal cord to the trapezius muscle becomes damaged. This causes pain and weakness in the back of the shoulder and the upper back. This also limits the range of motion of the shoulder joint. Damage to the spinal accessory nerve usually happens because of an injury to the back or shoulder.