SSH can be configured to restrict user access. Physical access can be restricted by enabling BIOS password and protecting GRUB with a password. This will restrict the physical access, as will disabling boot access from a CD/DVD and any external devices by configuring the BIOS to disable booting. There is no need to have a variety of services installed. If you don’t use them, don’t install them.
It hides the secret data in another file in such a way that only the recipient knows the existence of message. In ancient time, the data was protected by hiding it on the back of wax, writing tables, and stomach of rabbits or on the scalp of the slaves. But today’s most of the people transmit the data in the form of text, images, video, and audio over the medium in order to safely transmission of confidential data . The main steganography equation is:
Steganography deals with making the data unseen and cryptography deals with making the data unreadable. So finally,we can say that the cryptography deals with the privacy of data and steganography deals with the secrecy of data. However, steganography method is not intended to substitute or replace the cryptography method but rather to complement cryptography. What if we combine both? We can provide more security to our data, right?.
The nations that want to be protected and have safe cyber space should pursue aggressive offensive and defensive cyber warfare programs coordinated across the whole of government in order to address this threat. The cyberattacks in Estonia and Georgia do not represent the full spectrum of what can be expected from cyber warfare in the future, but instead are simply the humble beginnings of a new form of warfare. This new form of warfare has a very big potential and in the same time creates vulnerability on the modern battlefield. Governments and military organizations are just now discovering and defining the role cyber warfare will play in the future and how it will be integrated into military operations. In cyber security, organization is a prerequisite for everything.
If we continue the use of the NSA’s device we lose our privacy. NSA is always listening, but who is listening in on them. The NSA may be used to listen on people living normal lives, but they don’t know if someone from the organization is an info broker or someone is silently is cracking into the servers without being notice by the firewalls or protect that is installed into the device. These info brokers may sell our identities to people we don’t want them to have and may just use the information collected by the NSA to know where to have a terrorist attack. If Edwin Snowden was able to crack into the phone of the political people how do we know if we’re actually
The government has many tools in looking into people's information but the government doesn't realize that it is violating the 4th amendment by using the resources they have in looking into suspected people and that's the reason why we cannot trust our information to be safe with the government either way. David Cole, a lawyer who teaches constitutional law and national security at Georgetown University, and other legal analysts says that, “The world of computers has weakened the Fourth Amendment. "In the modern digital age, it means very, very little."(citation). The reason why he says this is because, before we had computers, no one knew who we were seeing or where we were going throughout the day, but if someone were to know they would have to wiretap our things to know. If the fourth amendment was follow the police would need a warrant to do that but in today's world we wouldn't need it anymore.
In the Michael Barrett’s Confessions section of the Casebook, it states that the diary wrote, “I Michael Barrett, make oath and state as follows… I was the author of the original diary of ‘Jack the Ripper’ and my wife, Anne Barrett, hand wrote it from typed notes and on occasions at my dictation, the details of which I will explain in due course.” However, since this was not discovered until much longer after the case was closed, it was dismissed as irrational evidence. Nowadays, myriad people consider James Maybrick to be the face of the name ‘Jack the Ripper’. Nevertheless, the other four main suspects are also extensively investigated. Francis Tumblety, in fact, had a supposed extreme hatred of women and prostitutes, which would fit the description of the killer. Tumblety was in London at the time and was known by many people, which, therefore, could have given him a more vast knowledge in the East End environment.
There are four main types of invasion privacy. The first one is intrusion of solitude. This type of invasion is common, where someone is illegally snooping through someone’s private life, such as: intercepting private phone calls, or looking at someone’s private records. This type of invasion does not require any publication of images; the act of intrusion itself violates the law. The other type is appropriation of name or likeness.
Around that time the glamorizing of a British spy went on, mostly in popular press, at the turn of the century the interest of the public was mostly put on Germany and Russia. It was also probably one of the reasons why in England, a variety of writers had used espionage as a main theme in their stories at the beginning of the twentieth century. Espionage put on imagination rather than actual life is connected with William Tufner Le Queux. Espionage in his eyes was glamorized. This author mainly wrote the genres of mystery, thriller and espionage, particularly in the years around World War I.
Cyber-attacks are attacks on a target system carried about by different people and may not be associated with a terrorist group. They may be trying to steal information or corrupt data. There are many ways to carry out cyber-attacks such as malware, botnets, viruses, denial of service (DoS) accounts and many other types of attacks. Cybersecurity is also known as information security which applies to devices such as computers, laptops, mobile devices, networks, and including the internet to include preventing unauthorized access, modify, or destroying data. Department of Homeland Security plays roles in securing the federal government and helping to secure a cyber-ecosystem by helping with investigations and arrest of cyber criminals, releasing cyber alerts about threats, and educate the public and stay safe online.
You can also strengthen such passwords by making some letters uppercase and by swapping out some letters with numbers and symbols 7. Don’t use passwords that are less than eight characters. It is risky. Online criminals and hackers could easily guess/crack such passwords. You should rather use passwords that have a minimum length of eight characters.
Secret code is applied to the message and hashed and is sent to the receiver 6. Secret code is applied to the message and hashed and this hashed message is encrypted and sent to the receiver. It is used in digital signatures the hash is encrypted using sender’s private key and then encrypted using public key and sent to the receiver and the receiver decrypts the message using the private key. It is used in password storage A good system does not store the plaintext equivalent but store something else which include some randomness .so now if we use hash and because of its onewayness it is impossible to get back the password. If we use pure hash in the password and encrypt it, it can be broken easily by exhaustive search so that is why we have add some randomness to the password before the hash function is applied.
a) Not true, the message can also be decrypted with the Public Key b) A so called “one way function with back door” is applied for the encryption c) The Public Key contains a special function which is used to encrypt the message and which can only be reversed by the appropriate Private Key d) The encrypted message contains the function for decryption which identifies the Private Key Answer:b 9. What is the main drawback of the symmetric Encryption? a) More complex and therefore more time-consuming calculations b) Problem of the secure transmission of the Secret Key c) Less secure encryption function d) Isn’t used any more Answer:b 10. What is the purpose a key during encrypt a message? a) The key indicates which function is used for encryption.
Misuse detection is used to identify previously known attacks for which they require before hand knowledge of attack signature. the disadvantage of this method is that prior knowledge of the attack is required and hence new attacks cannot be identified until new attacks signature have been developed for them. In anomaly detection system monitors activity to detect any significant deviation from normal user behavior compared to known user standard behavior, this type of intrusion detection can effectively protect against both well known and new attacks since no prior knowledge about intrusion is required. One of the most significant aspects of Intrusion Detection System is the use of Artificial Intelligence techniques to train the IDS about possible threats and gather information about the various traffic patterns to infer rules based on these patterns to distinguish between to differentiate between normal and intrusive
Invisible ink is a liquid that is used to send messages that can only be seen when affected with chemicals (dictionary.reference.com). The ink was used to send special messages to others so prying eyes can not see the message. This type of ink has been used for hundreds of years to communicate. Invisible ink was used by Germans during the first World War to communicate with each other to pass on information about England (scientificamerican.com). Invisible ink was also used during the Revolutionary war by both the Brits and Americans (clements.umich.edu).