Chapter -1: OBJECTIVE the more general When designing a small temperature control system, the best choice for a refrigerator/heater element is often a thermoelectric cooler (TEC). The operation of these devices is based on the Peltier effect, which was discovered in 1834 by Jean Peltier. When an electrical current is passed through the junction of two dissimilar metals (Figure 1), heat is also transferred across the junction. To pump heat, a thermoelectric cooler can require a significant amount of power, with typical drive voltages ranging from 2V to 12V and typical drive currents ranging from a fraction of an ampere to tens of amperes. Because of the amounts of power needed to drive a TEC, power-interface circuitry is necessary.
Using the aforementioned experimental setup as shown in Fig. 1, three ejectors as shown in Fig. 2 were investigated to determine the effects of the operation temperatures, nozzle exit position, and the diameter of the constant area section, dcas, on the working performance of the steam ejector powered by extra low-temperature heat source. In this investigation, the working performance of the steam ejector mainly includes system COP, cooling capacity and critical condensing temperature , Tc*. For the test, the generating temperature, Tg, ranged from 40 °C to 70 °C, and the evaporating temperature, Te, was set at 10 °C and 15 °C, respectively.
Chemical reactions transform bond energy into heat or work. Enthalpy of reaction (Hrxn) is the term used for the change in heat as a reaction is carried out at constant pressure. It is a state function as it only depends on the final and initial conditions during the change of state. If Hrxn < 0, the system releases heat and is therefore an exothermic reaction. On the other hand, if Hrxn > 0, the system absorbs heat.
Abstract— Now a days, the vehicles are known for producing a large amount of harmful gases like CO2, SO2 etc. which act as the major source for global warming and are also reason for environmental pollution. So, research is going on to find a vehicle which does not pollute the environment. Compressed air is one of the best solutions to reduce the global warming and environmental pollution. The compressed air is used as a fuel in the vehicle which is easily available in nature and also it is very economical.
The inorganic fire retardant acts simultaneously on the surface of the solid phase by cooling the substrate via endothermic breakdown process and reducing the formation of pyrolysis products . A Mixture of borax and boric acid, primarily used as a preservative in wood was found to have efficacy in retarding flame spread on wood surface. Because of their benefits including, preservative effectiveness, neutral pH, and less impact on mechanical properties compared to other flame retardant chemicals like phosphorous, boron compounds are often considered a good flame retardant . In addition to the char forming catalytic effect, they have low melting point and form glassy films when exposed to high temperatures in fire. The formation of this glassy film barrier inhibits the flow of combustible volatiles to the fire exposed surface.
The photosynthetic procedure can be altered to make the reaction between CO2, H2O and light produce liquid hydrogen. Liquid hydrogen can be used in hydrogen-powered systems as a gasoline. Hydrogen fuel cells can also produce electricity, which could be used to power a lot of everyday things. The main reason why artificial photosynthesis would be so useful is because it creates fuel from natural resources, so it doesn’t harm the environment. When humans burn fossil fuels, we emit toxic gases into the atmosphere that harm earth and increase global warming.
Starting with advantages of using this method with the main key point is the lesser fuel usage for the catalytic oxidation process. Next the catalyst employed in this reaction has high activity for the production of unsaturated nitrile and can be use in lower reaction temperature. Furthermore it has stable redox stability under the reaction condition of the process. By using the circularly fluidized bed reactor (CFB) its help to produce high yield product by separating the catalyst reduction zone and the re-oxidation process and it can be controlled independently. Methodology process can be more simplified for adding and removing catalyst using this type of reactor.
3.1.4 Energy Sources The prevalent natural heat sources and heat sinks in heat pump applications are outdoor air, ground (soil or bedrock) and water (river, lake, sea, ground water or waste water from industrial applications or sewage). But in my thesis I have used an underground water tank, combined with solar thermal system for heat recharging, as a heat source for water source heat pump to improve the efficiency because the temperatures of the heat source and distribution systems for heating and cooling affect the COP and the capacity of the heat pump. 3.2 Solar Energy Solar energy is radiant light and heat from the sun harnessed using a range of ever-evolving technologies such as solar heating, solar photovoltaics, solar thermal energy, solar architecture and artificial
Phase 2---- 1x 135 MW imported Coal+corex base power plant under designing. PRINCIPLE Multi fuel power plant works on the principle of Rankine Cycle. The Rankine cycle is a vapour power cycle that forms the thermodynamic basis for most steam power plants. These plants may use coal, oil, gas, or nuclear power as fuel for a high temperature source, but the basic thermodynamic operation remains fairly constant. The Rankine cycle relies on the isentropic expansion of high-pressure gas to produce work.
Moreover, the systems can use either or gas, or electricity, or even oil. In our country, they are popular to regulate the temperature of water heaters, air conditioning, heat pumps, and etc. This type of thermostats uses voltage between 24V and 50V, which makes it possible to regulate the electric current and use programmable