While the storms are part of the natural cycle of the ecosystem, they are the greatest hazard to the sandy-shore animals (Brown, A.C., and A. McLachlan). Other, more severe issues are the result of human activities. These incorporate the wet weather discharges, such as storm water, combined sewer and sanitation overflows, the discharges from recreational or commercial vessels, and the nutrients run-off from the agricultural activities. As a result of precipitation from rainfall or snow-melting, there is a huge discharge from the lines of combined sewers, and sanitary systems. The rainwater that washes away the chemicals, sediments, motor oil, antifreeze pollutants, and fertilizers ends up in the nearest beaches and causes a huge environmental risk.
• India doesn’t monitor water usage. • New Delhi literally cannot escape from the sewage it produces, because 45% of the population is disjoined to the public sewage system. Impacts: • A mixture of sewage disposal, industrial effluents, and chemicals from farm runoffs, arsenic and fluoride made the Indian’s rivers unsuitable for drinking, irrigation or industrial objectives. • More than 21% of contagious diseases in India are linked to unsafe water. • Millions of poor people are affected by preventable diseases, which are originated from insufficient water supply and sanitation.
Poldering is the provision of a ring bund surrounding the area to be protected. This is normally carried out for an area which has high damage potential but for which the cost on overall basin-wide protection would be prohibitive. It includes the provision of internal drainage for the area to be protected and the evacuation of flood water by pumping during periods of high river flows. Canalization also suitable in overcome flash flood. Canalization works include the widening and deepening of channels as well as lining the banks and beds of the channels.
Usually weather is very rough during these season. It will raining heavily all the time. When it rains heavily it caused the overflow of water from the river. Furthermore, nowadays there are the uncontrolled development .The effects of the developments caused the drain cannot function smoothly and also caused the landslide. All this effects can caused the big and unexpected disaster which is flash flood.
With the development of modern industry and agriculture, water pollution is becoming a serious question. A number of industrial facilities and inadequate sewage equipment led to the sewage discharged in to rivers, agricultural use pesticide and through the soil in to river, excessive deforestation cause soil erosion and the domestic sewage of house hold, etc..many river and lakes are not suitable for human life and the groundwater is also polluted. The Amazon in Americans, the Nile in Africa, the Yangtze in Asia and so on are in varying degrees by pollution. Because the reason that the water is irreplaceable and limited, if they are polluted, it will caused the water been getting fewer. The rapid growth of world population also become one of the reason of water shortage.
The relationship between watershed urbanization and aquatic ecosystem conditions has long been recognized and studied (Klein 1979, Benke et al 1981, Pitt and Bozeman 1983, Booth and Jackson 1997); even so, Arnold and Gibbons (1996) state that traditional stormwater planning has emphasized engineering for safety. This approach focuses on moving large amounts of runoff out of an area by collecting runoff in ditches and pipes, and then diverting it into nearby streams. A growing concern, however, has been for the downstream effects of this approach to stormwater management. Flooding, erosion, sedimentation and contamination are all possible outcomes from this approach. It is this concern for
Drainage integration of the basin also increases flood risk. Possibility of surface water stagnation is also quite high due to low stream frequency and drainage density at its lower reach. This observation is supported by frequent flood in the lower segment of the
The main reasons for Jakarta’s floods are: rivers brimming with garbage, waste-choked waterways, high levels of river sedimentation, and overflowing seawater; but the major contributor to flooding is pollution and the mishandling of waste management. To tackle this, the government has issued various policies
Overburdened or closed drainage systems can also lead to damage both within and outside floodplains. Construction and new development affect natural drainage and create new flood risks Some of the water are absorbed into the ground, if the ground does have enough water, the rest of the water has to go somewhere eventually, the water rushes into creeks and then rivers. If the rains continue for hours the poor rivers can 't handle that much water in that short period of time. The water then begins to overflow. The death toll from floods rain leave thousands people homeless.
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background Water pollution is a large set of undesirable effects upon water bodies such as lakes, rivers, oceans and groundwater that caused by human activities. This matter requires urgent attention, since water is scarce and such an important resource needs detailed scientific research all over the world in order to sustain and protect the water resource from pollution and for its wise utilization. However, no water in nature is absolutely clean. Even as it rains, the precipitation is interact with solid dissolved salts and aerosols in the air prior to reaching the ground, running on the surface and finally percolating through the different geological formations. The major sources of water pollution can be classified as municipal, industrial, and agricultural and there are also other sources of water pollution like petroleum, radioactive substances and heat.