Surface Roughness Research Paper

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Super wettability of solid surfaces became a matter of interest during the past decades. One of the fundamentals of this phenomena is young’s equation introduced in 1804. Young is known as the father of CA and wettability. The equation describes the contact angle of a water droplets with a solid surface. Later in 1936 Wenzel modified Young’s equation by adding surface roughness to the equation and explained that no surface is absolutely smooth at the molecular level. He proved that the hydrophobicity is related to the roughness of the surface. Cassie and Baxter in 1940 described the interaction of the air and the solid, furthermore they explained how the roughness of the surface can affect superhydrophobicity. Barthlot and Neinhuis made a big…show more content…
The answer to this question lies in the effect of surface roughness surface chemistry are responsible for wettability of the surface and thereafter surface tension or Surface energy control balancing a droplet on the surface which is a tensile or contractile force, a definition of energy per unit…show more content…
In these cases, temperature, electricity, solvent, sugar, stress, light and ion can change the properties of the material. These interactions can be reversible such as thermo-sensitive polymers. The polymer in an ambient temperature shows hydrophilic properties but when heating up, up to 40 Celsius degrees the polymer transforms to a helical structure and therefore becoming a hydrophobic material having a spherical surface structure. Another stimuli responsive example can be light responsive reversible interactions, which controls the superhydrophobicity and superhydrophilicity by alteration of UV irradiation and dark storage respectively.
Moreover, stress-responsive materials have also been studied such as PTFE which is a common elastic polymer with hydrophobic properties. When changing the density of the crystals by extension, CA was inclined dramatically, transforming the polymer from superhydrophobic to superhydrophilic when unloading the extension. Furthermore, multi stimuli responsive materials have also being researched so that they're tunable in different applications. The materials responsive to only 1 stimuli can be restrictive and limiting for applications in complex

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