Introduction Diabetes mellitus is a disease where the sugar levels in one’s blood is above the normal level. This is caused when the body does not produce enough insulin or the body’s cells do not respond correctly to insulin or both. A manifestation of diabetes in the eye is diabetic retinopathy .This affects the retina of the eye. It is when small vessels which are damaged spill into the retina. These blood vessels usually nourish the retina.
But if the damage continues, more and more nephrons shut down and even stop filtering blood effectively so that patients’ health will be affected. To be worse, kidney function falls below a certain point, which is kidney failure. Kidney failure, which can be life-threatening, has a more significant influence on the patient. CKD might lead to complications including high blood pressure, anemia, and heart and blood vessel disease.
4. Kidney Cysts Cysts are fluid-filled sacs. Kidney cysts are of two types: • Polycystic kidney disease tends to run in families. Cysts take over normal tissues and cause the kidneys to enlarge and work poorly. This eventually leads to kidney failure.
It affects premature infants because their lungs not fully develop and the lungs don’t have an insufficient surfactant. The surfactant is a complex phospholipid+ protein secreted by type 2 cell. It reduces surface the tension of alveolus. It keeps the alveoli open and prevents a collapse of the alveoli. When the surfactant is inadequate the alveoli will collapse, lung expansion will become more difficult ( compliance).
Other conditions that cause anemia are HIV/AIDS, cancer, kidney disease, and sickle cell anemia. Primary polycythemia is caused by unregulated erythrocyte production. Polycythemia may occur because of hypoxia. When this occurs the body senses low oxygen levels and produces more erythrocytes to carry more oxygen to the body
Diabetic eye disease includes diabetic retinopathy, cataract and glaucoma. What is Diabetic Retinopathy? Diabetic retinopathy is one of the complications of diabetes out of tripathy. Diabetic retinopathy occurs when hyperglycaemia (high blood sugar levels) causes damage to the cells at the back of the eye, known anatomically as, the retina. Diabetic retinopathy is a leading cause of loss of vision.
Such abuse may put the patients in trauma and deteriorate the condition further. Medicines do not have much of an effect on patients with traumatic minds. Hence, patients suffer more due to abuse. Burn Therapy The doctor fails to perform a thorough inspection and suggests treatments that are inadequate to cure the impact of the burns. Also, exposure of wounds may cause infections.
Intestinal ischemia Overview: Intestinal ischemia occurs when the blood vessels that flow bowel contract or block, thereby reducing the blood supply. Ischemia can affect the small intestine or colon, or both. The reduction in blood flow can cause pain and provide permanent injury to the bowel. The acute intestinal ischemia, or quickly stopping the direct circulation to the intestine, is an emergency and requires immediate surgery; that chronic, manifested in time, but must be treated because it can turn into acute or cause severe weight loss and malnutrition. Causes: The intestinal ischemia occurs when the direct circulation to the intestine decreases or stops completely.
Resistance happens when a drug is no longer effective in controlling a medical condition. Resistance arises for many reasons, for example the effectiveness of barbiturates (used to cure mild seizures and sleep disorders) often decreases when used repeatedly because taking it repeatedly causes the body to increase its production in the liver of mixed function oxidases that metabolise the drug, therefore reducing the drug’s effectiveness. An increase in the rate of production of an enzyme that metabolises the drug is a common reason for drug resistance. Another reason for drug resistance is the down-regulation of receptors (decrease in the number of receptors). Down-regulation happens when the receptors are stimulated repeatedly which causes the receptor to be broken down.
ABSTRACT Chronic kidney disease refers to the kidneys have been damaged by conditions, such as diabetes, glomerulonephritis or high blood pressure. Kidney disease also makes more possible to mature heart and blood vessel disease. These problems may happen gently on long period of time, often without any symptoms. It may eventually lead to kidney failure requiring dialysis or a kidney transplant to preserve survival time. So the primary detection and treatment can prevent or deferral of these complications.
The obesity also leads to diabetes and reduces the immune capacity of the patient. Constant hyperglycaemia and poor foot hygiene, lack of lifestyle modification, poor blood glucose monitoring, and lack of exercises may lead to uncontrolled diabetes. The diabetic neuropathy leads the patient’s feet to get injury and ulcer formation. The BMI indicates that the person’s weight the degrees
Diseases or illnesses affecting the lungs cause the flow of air and blood into and out of your lungs to become impaired. Obstruction in the airflow impairs the lower airways from clearing out mucus which in turn creates an ideal environment for infection. Inflammation in the airways occurs and makes matters worse for the lungs. Inflammation with COPD damages the system responsible for the clearing of mucus in the airways. The risk of developing pneumonia for those with COPD is greater due to already weakened lungs and the inability to filter bacteria and viruses.
Blood pressure drops because the heart isn 't pumping blood sufficiently and the body isn 't getting enough oxygen. The body begins to go into toxic shock from the toxin the bacteria is giving off. Diagnosis depends on how rapidly the skin changes, redness, pain greater than the actual injury, erythema, skin necrosis, bullae and crepitus. Amputation of legs, hands, finger, toes are likely to happen to save the person 's life. Amputation occurs because the immune system can 't fight the bacteria at the
Therefore, individuals who have this disease need outside help in order for them to be able to regulate their blood sugar levels. It typically affects younger individuals such as children, adolescents, and young adults. About 5% of people who have diabetes have type I diabetes. The exact cause of type I diabetes is not known, however, the likely cause of the disease is due to an autoimmune disorder. The immune system, which fights off infections and other harmful material in the body, mistakenly destroys beta cells in the pancreas.
The correlations between phenotype and genotype have not yet proven, but most mutations of the ABCA12 genes are though to be core that leads to HI disease. Mutations of the ABCA12 genes are thought to lead to major loss of this protein functions because it effect the folding of the beta and alpha sheets in order to become functional proteins that is essential for lipids transport across the cell membrane to the epidermis layer of the skin. One other disease that is also associated with mutations of ABCA12 gene is lamellar ichthyosis (LI). This disease is the less severe version of HI, due to lower incidents of mutation in the affected genes. The mutated ABCA12 in LI can still make functional proteins that somewhat help with lipids binding across the outer skin layer.