A three revolute (3R) Kinematic chain has been chosen for each leg mechanism in order to mimic the leg structure of an insect. Denavit-Hartenberg (D-H) conventions are used to perform kinematic analysis of the six legged robot. Insects are chosen as models because their nervous system are simpler than other animal species. Also, complex behaviors can be attributed to just a few neurons and the pathway between sensory input and motor output is relatively shorter. Insects ' walking behavior and neural architecture are used to improve robot locomotion.
OVERVIEW Swarm intelligence is defined as the collective behavior of fragmentized, self-established groups. They are made up of simple agents that interact with the environment (so called stigmergy) and between each other. The agents follow simple rules and possess themselves limited capabilities. They don’t follow centralized orders for each individual and interact locally and randomly but together, from a global point of view, their behaviour emerges as ”intelligent” Examples for such actions are hunting for food by ants, or hunting for nectar by bees. The nature of swarms largely looks like mobile ad-hoc networks (MANETs) and that is the reason ideas from swarm animals like ants and bees are used for creating suitable routing protocols
A famous scientist by the name of Albert Einstein once said, “Imagination is more important than knowledge.” Some people say knowledge is power, but I believe imagination is power. I agree that imagination is more important than knowledge because it is unique and creative, it creates our future, and it helps with learning in the classroom. First, imagination is more important than knowledge because it is unique and creative. Imagination is defined as the action of forming new ideas, images, or concepts. Synonyms for imagination are creativity, originality, ingenuity, and innovation.
Each particle has a fitness value associated with it which is evaluated by the fitness function to be optimized which direct the flying of the particles and have velocities. The particles follow the current optimum particles and fly through the problem space.The initial value assigned to the PSO is a group of arbitrary/random particles (solutions) then it update generations to search for optimal solution . Each particle is updated by two "best" values in
3.1 Ant Based Control (ABC) Ant Based Control model  is one of the ant Colony Optimization (ACO) based algorithm used for the telephone network. ABC uses fixed shortest-path routes, and also uses an alternative algorithmically-based type of mobile agent for use with network management. In ABC algorithm a number of agents called ants are continuously exploring the network from the sources to random destinations. Arriving at a node, they update the pheromones to their source node for its entire neighbor node, which corresponds to the probabilities for ants to select each neighbor node. ABC uses two ants 1) Exploratory ant 2) Actual ant.
By whatever amount the net force acting on the cart changes, I believe its acceleration will change proportionally. Because the relationship is linear, the results on the graph will be linear. This can be shown mathematically as: a ∝ F, or in words “a is proportional to F”. Therefore, a=kF, which can be rearranged to get F=(1/k)a. We know that F=ma where the mass is the cart plus the weights with friction considered, and we know that weight=mass x gravitational field strength.
The PSO algorithm was introduced in 1995 by Kennedy and Eberhart. In earlier days PSO can be used to implement the simple function and extended to real time applications such as medical image processing, industrial applications, satellite image processing etc. PSO is based on swarm intelligence concept. Swarm Intelligence is an artificial intelligence based on the collective behaviour of decentralized, self-organized systems in order to obtain the optimized results. Swarm is composed of collection of individuals known as particles.
Introduction In the lab “Gravity Demos,” the common objective is to learn more about gravity and the center of gravity by performing various experiments. The definition of gravity is an attraction between any objects that have mass. Every planet has a gravitational pull, for example, earth’s gravitational pull is 9.8 meters over seconds squared (9.8 m/s2). This means that a bowling ball and a feather would fall at the same speed and hit the ground at the same time if there wasn’t air resistance (a force that slows down objects that move through the air.) In the lab, there were six experiments that needed to be tested.
A number of basic variations have been developed due to improve speed of convergence and quality of solution found by the PSO. Kennedy and Eberhart, considering the behavior of swarms in the nature, such as birds, fish, etc. developed the PSO algorithm. The PSO has particles driven from natural swarms with communications based on evolutionary computations. PSO combines self-experiences with social experiences.
He is called the father of the clockwork universe because of the theories he invented, universal gravity, three laws of motion ("Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." (Holzner 2006, p. 7-15) 3.1 USE OF DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS IN PHYSICS Differential equation is one of the examples of mathematical equations that is associated with functions and its derivatives. The functions determine the physical quantities (position, velocity, acceleration and forces acting on the object), the