Chromic acid cleanly oxidizes secondary alcohols to ketones using acetones as solvent and the product isolation is simple. The terpene borneol (with an endo-secondary hydroxyl group, -OH) is oxidized to camphor as below: Oxidation of borneol is an exothermic reaction, in order to avoid creation of side product; the experiment should be carried out at room temperature. Extreme heat will lead to creation of camphoric acid, therefore the heat should be controlled when carrying out the experiment. Result and calculation:
In addition, it is also have potential of providing precise and specific separation of gases including the removal of H20, CO2 and SO2 from low-grade natural gas streams. Other separation include noble gases, N2, O2, Freon and formaldehyde. 3.0 PROBLEM STATEMENT A Polysulfone was chosen as a membrane material. Polysulfone (PSF) has been used as a polymer for commercial microfiltration, nanofiltration and reverse osmosis membrane because of its desirable good mechanical, high thermal and its chemical stability. However, PSF membrane application is limited due to its hydropobic properties which results in low water flux and membrane fouling.
It states that water is made up of two pure substances which are hydrogen and oxygen. This means it is a pure, free of salts solution which makes it a poor conductor of electricity. By adding table salt to the distilled solution makes it more concentration which makes is an electrolyte solution, so that it can conduct electricity. Some electrolyte solutions are a substance that produces an electrically conducting solution when dissolved in a polar system, such as water. Many ions like salt water can conduct electricity when its dissolves in water, many ionic solutions need two or more ions that are connected by an electrical attraction.
Kinetic investigation of TiO2 mediated photocatalytic degradation of Para nitrophenol Introduction In the manufacture of dyes, medicines and pesticides, nitrophenols are widely used as chemical intermediates. These are stable, carcinogenic and toxic. Para nitrophenol(PNP) is one of them and the presence of it in the environment is harmful for the living being. The technique heterogeneous photocatalysis belonging to advanced oxidation process have proved to be one of the most effective treatment methods for the removal of pollutants from wastewater. In this process strong oxidizing agent hydroxyl radicals are produced which oxidizes a wide variety of organic pollutants into innocuous end products such as carbon dioxide, water and mineral acids………
The solid luminol was isolated by vacuum filtration, then its chemiluminescence was demonstrated through its reaction with iron from a solution of potassium ferricyanide. The product obtained was identified on whether it glowed. 6. Data and Results The reaction of the product with potassium ferricyanide produced a blue-green glow. This identified the product as luminol.
In this project combination of sodium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide is used as electrolytic solution. 1. Caustic soda (NaOH) It is also known as sodium hydroxide, having caustic metallic base. It is hygroscopic readily absorb water as presented in air, so it should be stored in a container. Caustic soda is soluble in water with the liberation of heat along with also dissolves in ethanol and methanol, although it shows lower solubility in these solvents than potassium hydroxide.
Cooling process: By cooling down the material through some chemical reactions in which energy absorbing (endothermic) processes triggered by additives and/or the chemical release of water cool the substrate to a temperature below that required for sustaining the combustion process, e.g. magnesium hydroxide [26,13,20]. Coating process: By forming a protective layer or coating that prevents or shields the underlying combustible layer of material with a solid or gaseous protective layer from heat and oxygen necessary for the combustion process, e.g. phosphorous and boron compounds [26,13,20]. Dilution process: By incorporating inert substances (e.g.
Enzymatic synthesis offers various advantages over chemical synthesis such as lower energy requirement, enhanced selectivity and quality of product . Although aqueous enzymology is extensively used, non-aqueous enzymology grown considerably in recent years for its successive application in pharmaceutical, food, agrochemical, drug, cosmetic industry, fine chemical, flavor and perfumery industry . Chemical reaction are less favored owing to attend problems such as poor reaction selectivity leading to undesirable side products and requires harsh reaction condition . New immobilization techniques make it possible to use enzymes in industrial processes in a similar way to the use of classical catalysts for heterogeneous reactions. Hence,
It is usually treated by physical or chemical treatment process. These include physical or chemical flocculation, flotation, electro-flotation, membrane-filtration, electro kinetic–coagulation, electro chemical-destruction, and precipitation. These conventional chemical and physical methods are versatile and useful, but they only transfer the pollutant from one form to another, and produced secondary waste products. But these types of technologies are inefficient, expensive and have low adaptability to diverse type of dye effluent. Traditional methods for the cleanup of dyes in the textile waste water usually involve the removal of unwanted materials through sedimentation, filtration and chemical treatments such as flocculation, neutralization and electro-dialysis before disposal.
Chemical surfactants are found to be highly toxic even at low concentrations and poses environmental risks by producing detrimental compounds through incomplete biodegradation ‘Gutiérrez et al. (2002). Even after the sewage treatment, a high percentage of the surfactant molecules remain unaffected which are continuously releasing into the environment ‘Kosaric (1992). Biosurfactants are better-quality eco-friendly replacements for chemical surfactants and their specific structural properties, make them able to have wide range of applications in varied areas of