Henry Ford once said, “Coming together is a beginning; keeping together is progress. Working together is success” (Brainy Quote). From here, the concept of inclusive education, including students with and without learning disabilities as peers in the same classroom, originated. The aim of this type of education is to get students with learning disabilities involved in the society. Teachers and fellow students will also provide help for students with disabilities; in this way, students with learning disabilities will be motivated to study as they feel that they are a part of a group instead of being isolated in special places.
Studies had shown that positive teacher–student relationships created a warm environment that facilitated successful adaptation in school. Contradict with conflict teacher–student relationships, which normally associated with lower achievement (Buyse, Verschueren, Doumen, Van Damme, & Maes, 2008; Hamre & Pianta, 2005). Research had further specified that students with whom teachers report positive relationships were outgoing and socially competent (Birch & Ladd, 1998; Pianta, et al., 1995). These findings support the key role that teacher–student relationships play in children’s school adjustment. Therefore, role of teacher as caregiver, class manager and provider intellectual, emotional and physical support should crucially base on teacher-students relationship.
As early as 1962, Maslow posited a psychological hierarchy in which the need for belonging took precedence over needs for knowledge and understanding. According to Slavin (1981), students who worked together liked school more than students who were not allowed to do so. They were more likely to say that they wanted their classmates to do well in school and that they felt their classmates also wanted them to do well. By participating in social-climate setting activities, both students and teachers came to better understand each other’s value systems and began to create a cohesive environment. This enabled them to work together toward the common goal of social and academic achievement (Moos & Moos, 1973).
The building and maintaining of relationships is essential for a school to work efficiently and productively. Open relationships between students, staff, parents and the school community establish trust and an effective learning and working environment. The Elton Report (1989) identifies that consistency and fairness in relationships between staff and pupils can contribute to positive pupil behaviour and a sense of community. Teachers and support staff that have developed an effective relationship with their pupils based on mutual respect are able to facilitate a learning environment where disruptive behaviour is not positively received by peers, and such behaviour can be dealt with quickly before it has a chance to get out of control. Only
Pros of Mainstream schooling Education ensures a productive future for everyone, it opens minds of people. People get to learn about history of cultures, values and it broadens mental setting. There are different ways in which children are taught parents have an option of sending their children to school or to home school. Although home schooling is on the increase parents still send their kids to mainstream schooling. There are pros of sending a child to school because of having a teacher who is able to choose materials relevant to the learners, feedback is given directly as learners are able to communicate with the teacher and show understanding.
That need collaboration of the parents that schools benefit enormously from parents and their support (Clarke, 2007:7-10). Thus, it is important for the school staff to encourage parental involvement and develop partnership. Parental involvement at school activities is collaboration with the community, that identifying and integrating the community resources and services to strengthen school programs, family practices, and children’s learning and development (Epstein & Sheldon, 2005:8). Accordingly, schools have required to give information for pupils and families on community health, cultural, recreational, social support, and other programs or services as well as community activities that have linked to learning skills and talents. This is beneficial for School and its students to set up a stronger connection and relationship with organizations in the community and use community resources
For preschool children, literacy enhancing activities in the home such as singing songs, playing games, reciting rhymes, and drawing pictures improve literacy and language outcomes. These are very supportive activities that provide a nurturing environment where a child grows and learns and also provide the essential needs that motivate active learning within the child. Therefore, parental involvement is vital in supporting a child’s literacy development (Anderson, 2007). Although the parent might not be physically in the classroom setting, they still show their support of their child’s education, including literacy development by being available and providing support with homework. The child may interpret the parent’s lack of involvement as an indication that school is not important and may lose motivation.Overall, research has figured out that parental involvement does make a difference to pupils’ engagement and their achievement and the evidence indicates that parental involvement benefits students, parents, teachers and schools.
Family- Parents and grandparents can have a huge impact on their children and their attitudes to learning. A family who encourages learning will produce a positive child who is willing to listen and learn at school. For example when a child has homework to complete, it is important that the parent contributes to helping the child so that they learn the importance of completing work set for
In addition to the classroom environment, another important factor that contributes to the development of social competence is the teacher-learner relationship. In fact, no learning occurs without a significant relationship between the teacher and the learner (Zsolnai, 2002). Highly socially competent teachers show more empathy, openness, and understanding than those teachers who are less socially competent themselves. By modeling socially acceptable behaviors, Zsolnai (2002) suggested that students be given a chance to practice and develop their own social competencies. Just as Grolnick and Ryan (1989) suggested that an autonomous parenting style fosters positive social competence in children, Zsolnai (2002) found that it was the same with teachers.
This is because parents are the closest individuals who know the children better. Therefore, in the curriculum context, parents’ involvement as the co-implementers and supporters in curriculum development is important in order to enhance the students’ learning as well as to shape their behaviours. According to Taylor (2013) students with parents who are involved in their school tend to have better academic performance and fewer behavioural problems in school. This proves that parents have great impacts and influences on their children’s