Language used in classroom discourse is different in form and function from language used in other situations because of particular social roles learners and teachers have in classrooms and the type of activities they do there. Discourse is the organization of language beyond the level of sentence and the individual speaking turn, whereby meaning is negotiated in the process of interaction (Carter & Nunan, 2001). There are many approaches to study classroom discourse and every researcher in this field has his or her arguments on what is the best way to analyze discourse in the classroom context. However, there does exist some consensus among the scholars; it all started with discourse analysis (DA) and the IRF pattern. Classroom discourse analysis is an aspect of classroom process
Meaning and message are the special tools for instruction, and the language is the main goal of the lesson and the focus of activity. On the other hand, language is also a tool for obtaining the objective of the lesson (Solhi & Büyükyazı, 2011). Interaction occurs between teachers and their students in order to acquire insights into class-based learning. The second language classroom is a dynamic and complex series of interrelated contexts, in which interaction is regarded as being essential to teaching and learning (Walsh, 2006). According to Qian, Tian &Wang (2009), classroom communication is a problematic means.
As developed by Robin Alexander since the early 2000s, dialogic teaching harnesses the power of talk to stimulate and extend students’ thinking and advance their learning and understanding. It helps the teacher more precisely to diagnose students’ needs, frame their learning tasks and assess their progress. It empowers the student for lifelong learning and active citizenship. Dialogic teaching is not just any talk. It is as distinct from the question-answer and listen-tell routines of traditional teaching as it is from the casual conversation of informal
It reads “ Asking what the discourse is about, then, involves identifying the subject matter or topic at the most obvious level, but also determining issues that underlie it and the states that should be addressed- in short, asking what questions need to be resolved by this discourse?” This ties back to my classroom due to the fact that Professor Clark-Oates speaks a lot about discourse and always reminds us to ask questions in our writing that our audience may have and respond to those questions. Types of rhetorical questions in writing make a big impact especially because someone with no knowledge may be the audience and our writing should be able to make sense to anyone who is reading. At times, I feel as if I forget that because when I’m writing I feel as if my audience already has some type of background knowledge but in most cases, that is not the case. Something important I caught was that “ Rhetors may speak in some professional capacity, a volunteer role, as a parent, or in some other role that may be less readily identifiable.” When we think of “ Rhetors” we think of professionals, we think of someone with a masters degree in writing, but it’s not always the case and that's important to keep in mind because it may always
According to their study, conventional metaphors are very important as their shape our cognition. They influence the concepts in our mind because they help us understand the meaning of abstract notions (which are slightly defined by our experinces) such as time, plans, emotions, ideas, etc. Therefore, we compare abstract notions to concepts which are more clear in our thought or experience in order to fully understand them (115). Since the way we understand things is structured by the concepts in our head, our conceptual system is of critical importance to our perception of reality. Lakoff and Johnson also state that universal experiences form part of our global perception as we use them to think from the day we exist.
Hence, debate is a method of language learning which is applicable not only to improve the students’ speaking skill but also critical thinking. In addition, debate is potential to develop students’ critical thinking and speaking skill. This statement is supported by Walker and Warhust (2000) who claim that debates in the classroom have been effective in increasing critical thinking by letting students connect as they learn subject
There are characteristics identified by Richard and Rogers (1986:71) “The primary function of language is for the interaction and communication function of language. The structure of language reflects its functional and communicative uses. The primary units of language are not merely its grammatical and structural features, but categories of functional and communicative meaning as exemplified in discourse.” The Communicative Language Theory means that teaching has to be student-centered. This suits the CAPS document because (2011: 8) “Learning to use language effectively enables learners to acquire knowledge, to express their identity, feelings and ideas, to interact with others, and to manage their world. It also provides learners with a rich, powerful and deeply rooted set of images and ideas that can be used to make their world other than it is; better and clearer than it is.
THE ROLE OF INTERACTION IN SPEAKING LEARNING CLASS TSANIYATUS SILVI R. 122084048 ABSTRACT During teaching and learning activity, teacher as students’ mediator of communication should know how to encourage students so that they have good oral production. In speaking class, the use of interaction is needed in order to augment learners’ speaking ability. The attempt of this paper is to investigate the role of interaction in speaking learning class. The interaction includes the communication through conversation and communication games such as information-gap games and TV and radio games. The use of mother tongue is also play important role in encouraging students to learn more English as they feel unthreatened in the class activity.
Discourse analysis a broad term for the study of the way of analyzing the relationship between the language and context. It is also called discourse studies. Discourse in classroom is the term that refers to the language that teachers and students use to communicate with each other in the classroom. The teacher’s instructions extremely affect to the students’ acquirement in classroom so a successful teacher is a person who can use their language to teach students and manage classroom effectively. It means that appropriate teacher discourse can create the harmonious atmosphere and promotes a more friendly relationship between teachers and students, and consequently creates more opportunities for interactions between teachers and students (LIU
The status of the language in the society, or the positive or negative cultural images associated with the language .The attitudes of parents, elders, siblings and peer group greatly influence the learners attitude, the general learning atmosphere, the methods and techniques used in the classroom to help students with the language play a critical role in the Language Learning Process. The role of the mother tongue is also a crucial factor in helping the learner with the