Essay On The Cardiovascular System

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The Cardiovascular system consists of the heart and the vascular system. The heart is a two sided pump with 4 chambers. The right atrium receives de oxygenated blood from the veins of the body.
The right ventricle pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs via the pulmonary arteries. The left atrium receives oxygenated blood from the lungs via the pulmonary veins. The left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood to the body via the aorta. The cardiac cycle consists of 2 phases: systolic (the contraction phase) and diastolic (relaxation phase). Blood pressure ensures that circulating blood reaches all parts of the body and moves upwards against gravity. Stroke volume is the amount of blood pumped out by the ventricles in one contraction. Cardiac output
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The kidneys ultimately excrete these.
The respiratory system.
The respiratory system is involved in breathing and gaseous exchange. Air enters and leaves the respiratory system via the nose or mouth. The air then passes through the pharynx and so on to the larynx. These are separated by a flap called the epiglottis, which prevents food from entering the trachea or windpipe. The trachea is cylindrical, 10 – 13 cm in length and kept open by a series of ringed cartilages. At the lower end the trachea branches into 2 bronchi. Each bronchus leads to a lung and branches into ever smaller bronchioles. The bronchioles terminate in clusters of alveoli, which are surrounded by pulmonary capillaries and is the site of gaseous exchange where oxygen and CO2 are exchanged.
The function of the respiratory system then is to exchange gases between the air and the blood stream, oxygen in and waste product carbon dioxide out.
The gas pressure in the lungs is controlled by the contraction of the diaphragm. When inhaling the diaphragm moves down the ribs move up and out so creating a space and allowing air to fill the space. In exhaling the diaphragm moves up and the ribs move down and in , decreasing the
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