of soil was taken passing through 75 micron sieve was taken. Water was added to it to bring its moisture content to about 8% . The mould with base plate attached was weighed . The extension collar was attached with the mould. Then the moist soil in the mould was compacted in 3 equal layers, with 25 blows from the 2.6 Kg rammer on each layer.
Urban space, particularly structures, continues changing with social advancement. On the other hand, conventional two-dimensional representation can just speak to the plane geometric depiction, which is not able to bolster three-dimensional dynamic perception. Just with three-dimensional dynamic representation can the structures' spatial morphology be shown transiently, including structures' creation, development, evacuating, and so forth. In any case, these structures' progressions are difficult to be examined in conventional two-dimensional and three-dimensional static representation frameworks. Accordingly, it gets to be dire to locate a compelling answer for actualize three-dimensional spatial-worldly representation of structures.
Usually buildings have only one curtain wall surrounding its core and it is therefore attached to a stable structure. The outer skin of the Shanghai Tower, on the other hand, is 2 to 33 feet away from the core. (ref 20) Also, the conventional way of supporting the weight of this extra layer would be to fill up the the space with steel supports. However, this solution defeats the design team’s objective to have airy sky gardens, not to mention the poor aesthetics when the bulky steel support web is seen. To add to the challenge, a slim-line steel structure is adopted in order to satisfy aesthetic demands, which can easily collapse under its own weight: one floor of the curtain wall weighs 115 tons.
The construction of Shanghai Tower began in 2006 and took eight years of work before its completion in March of 2014. It is home to the world's highest observation deck. The total cost of the building was $4.2 billion. The tower is located in Shanghai’s Lujiazui financial district and even towers over the other two world-renowned skyscrapers in Shanghai: Jin Mao Tower and the Shanghai World Financial Centre. This building was designed to serve as a hotel and office by the American architectural company Gensler.
3.3 The simulated urban forms Three archetypal urban typologies are examined: the perimeter block, the slab and the pavilion (Martin & March, 1972; Ratti et al., 2003). The variations of the geometric parameters described below generate an array of distinct cases (Figure 3): Number of floors (4, 6, 8 and 10 floors): Building height in each model is treated as uniform. The maximum height of 10 floors (30m) adheres to the limit of 32m imposed by the Greek building code (Greek Government Gazette, 2012). Open space width (6, 12, 18, 24 and 30m): This parameter refers to the width of streets and, in the case of blocks, to the depth of internal courtyards. Open space width is held constant in each model in order to be easily related to building height.
A new 'pre-fab' lattice structure constructed from concrete beams was inserted into the Egyptian courtyard. Its supported by ten 24-meter high columns. A vertical free standing platforms divides the space in two and creates a 9 metres gallery below flooded with natural light that shines along the sides of the walls from the glass roof above it. The 'top floor' of this structure houses a new exhibition room. An open void is then created leaving the height and original materiality exposed to be admired.
Sulaymaniyah is an example and the result of various different plans that made this city to be an unattractive city. The roads are irregular and the houses and buildings are arranged in strange ways; one building is high; one is small, one is 5 meter before another, one is built on a triangle land, so there is not pretty plans and standards which all things belong to them. To build a beautiful city there must be a planner to say that the roads should be designed this way, the building should have these standards, and people should not build their houses anywhere they want otherwise the result will be a city like Sulaymaniyah. Descartes also successfully implied this believing on the laws and want to say that if the laws devised by one person, the results will be effective even if the laws are not good. Nowadays, some Kurds say that the days which Saddam Hussein was the president of Iraq, things were going better because one person devised all the laws and plans, and the laws were equal to all Iraqi civilians.
Building design requires an understanding of Saudi culture. The factors to be considered when designing a building in Saudi's religious practice, the position of women in society and the organic symbolism (Hall, M. 1996). Therefore, in order to design a building member of the project team first need to understand these factors and then implement their design. Because of cultural differences, the members of the project team need to understand the legal issues and contract system and above all, they should be able to resolve the legal issues by adopting the Saudi
Aesthetic balance is never ignored with technical balance (Pringle, 2014). The concept of paradise garden was also advanced from here. The waterfall in the buildings was the deals of great Sinan. Because holy Quran states the rivers of wine thus the paradise garden in mosques and buildings were made according to those statements of Quran. This has added much value to buildings.