IV bolus of unfractionated Heparin or Subcutaneous injection of low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) may be used to prevent the formation of new blood clots. Nursing consideration: Require regular monitoring of activated partial thromboplasitn time (aPTT) and needed frequent heparin dose changes (Brunner and Suddarth’s, et al, 2010: 765). Fibrinolytic therapy: This therapy is given to dissolve the thrombus in the artery and restore the blood flow. There are two fibrinolytic drugs which are streptokinase and Recombinant tissue plasminogen activators (r-TPA) which includes Alteplase, reteplase and tenecteplase (Brunner and Suddarth’s, et al, 2010: 772).
Phlebotomist This paper explores three published articles, five books, and one internet website that report on results about a phlebotomist. A phlebotomist is a clinical laboratory technician who draws blood samples from patients of all ages. According to, DeLaet(2013) and Phillips, L., & Gorski, L. (2014), the type of work that a phlebotomist performs is drawing blood from the vein using Venipuncture and capillary puncture. A phlebotomist must know how to apply a tourniquet on the patient’s arm, locate a vein, and insert a needle correctly.
Nitroglycerin (NTG) increases collateral blood flow, redistributes blood flow toward the sub endocardium, and dilates the coronary arteries. In addition, it decreases myocardial oxygen demand by peripheral vasodilation, which decreases both preload and afterload. 2. Congestive heart failure is the inability for the heart to pump effectively. The three types of heart failure are left sided heart failure, right-sided heart failure and high output failure but most heart failure begins in the left ventricle and progresses to failure of both ventricles.
Which imaging modality is the most accurate in vertebral artery dissection diagnosis? Pei Wen Tammy Kwa, Sarah Moore, Paul Ryan, Kate Somers Introduction An arterial dissection is said to occur when the structural integrity of an arterial wall is compromised, permitting blood to collect between layers of the vessel wall to form an intramural haematoma. Arterial dissection is a common cause of stroke in the young, although it may occur at any age.
If the clot is in a deep vein, which is usually a lower extremity, they are referred to as deep vein thrombi. If the clot breaks away and travels to the lung, they are referred as a pulmonary embolism. Deep vein thrombi, and pulmonary embolisms are categorized as venous thromboembolisms (International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis, 2017). Although all hospitalized patients are at an increased risk of venous thromboembolism development, patients whom pose the highest risk include: patients who have cancer, had major surgery, experienced trauma, and/or are significantly immobile (The American Heart Association, 2017). Due to the nature of thromboembolism development, the risks of development have been present whenever an individual is injured or experienced decrease mobility.
It is a challenging procedure to rehabilitate an atrophied edentulous jaw by placing conventional implants. Although various bone augmentation procedure like ridge augmentation, sinus lift are in practice but it may lead to the morbidity of donor’s site. Sometimes patient is not willing for such extensive surgical procedures. In such cases basal implants is a viable treatment option. Basal implants derive support from the basal bone area which usually remains free from the infection and less prone to resorption.
Ablation of cardiac tissue using radio frequency catheter: This is to stop abnormal paths of the electrical signal generated in the heart 's natural pacemaker. They are used for these purpose radiofrequency electrodes that are mounted on special catheters that are inserted into the heart through an artery. Reconstructive plastic surgery of heart valves
The incubation mixture contained 2.5 ml of 1.2% (w/v) fibrin, 2.5 ml of 100 mM Tris–HCl buffer, 10 mM CaCl2 (pH 7.8), and 20 µg of enzyme. The incubation was carried out at 37°C for 30 min, and the reaction was stopped by adding 5 ml of 110 mM trichloroacetic acid containing 220 mM sodium acetate and 330 mM acetic acid. This reaction mixture was centrifuged at 3,000×g for 5 min, and the absorbance of the trichloroacetic acid (50 mM) soluble product was determined at 275 nm. One unit of fibrinolytic enzyme activity was defined as the amount of enzyme required to liberate 1 µg of L-tyrosine per minute at 37°C. The total protein determination was performed as described by Lowry et al.
The reason behind this is because veins have to withstand the pressure of blood being released by the arteries. It also has the similar features as arteries, except that there is no external elastic lamina. An endothelial layer also surrounds the lumen in the tunica intima of a vein. Sometimes there may be an internal elastic lamina seen, if the vein is larger or thicker. Lastly, capillaries are the thinnest of the blood vessels and connect the arteries and veins.
Literature from the pre thrombolytic era have shown that intraventricular and atrio ventricular conduction defects were associated with a greater in hospital morbidity and mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction 1-5. The impact of thrombolytic therapy on acute myocardial infarction mortality has been widely confirmed by scientific evidence. Yet, the majority of controlled clinical studies on thrombolysis do not refer to the incidence of and mortality from atrial and interventricular conduction disturbances; few studies explicitly compare these variables between pre- and postthrombolytic therapy eras 6,7. A few literature reports have
An embolism is a blockage of an artery. The blocked artery can be caused by a blood clot or even an air bubble. When an artery is completely or partially blocked off it prevents the tissues and organs from receiving the oxygen it needs to function normally. A pulmonary embolism is a blockage of one of the pulmonary arteries in the lungs. Usually more than one artery is blocked off.