Perfusion : Perfusion is the process of a body delivering blood to a capillary bed in itsbiological tissue. The word is derived from the French verb "perfuser" meaning to "pour over or through". Tests verifying that adequate perfusion exists are a part of a patient's assessment process that are performed by medical or emergency personnel. The most common methods include evaluating a body's skin color, temperature, condition and capillary refill. Perfusionists employ artificial blood pumps to propel open-heart surgery patients' blood through their body tissue, replacing the function of the heart while the cardiac surgeon operates.
Treatment must begin in a timely manner. The specifics of treatment depend on the etiology of the edema. Surgery may be needed if the edema is caused by tumors, abscesses and/or hydrocephalus. Causes such as diabetic ketoacidosis, stroke and malignant hypertension may require aggressive medical management. Sometimes medication may be used in treatment of interstitial cerebral edema in order to reduce cerebrospinal fluid production in chronically increased intracranial pressure.
Both complete and partial atrioventricular septal defects can be repaired by surgery. During the surgery, the doctor will both close the hole in the heart’s chambers and reconstruct the valves that have been damaged. The hole is closed during the procedure by applying one or two patches to the septum. These patches will become a permanent fixture of the heart’s septum, as eventually, the lining of the heart will grow over the patches. The mitral valve is also reconstructed during surgery either by repairing it or, if needed, replacing it so that the valve will close tightly enough to regulate the blood flow.
These are, Thrombosis, Intimal hyperplasia and graft infection. Thrombosis consists of coagulation of the blood in the artery. Intimal hyperplasia is when the tunica intima of a blood vessel is thickened. Lastly is the case of graft infection, which involves patient-related, surgery related and postoperative risk factors, and can happen by direct contamination during operative procedure, in most cases from the patient’s skin or adjacent bowel. (Hydrogel and Lycra Graft) There are several ways in which Synthetic Grafts can be improved.
The leak or rupture may be caused by conditions that affect the blood vessels. Examples include uncontrolled hypertension, aneurysms, and over treatment with anticoagulants. Types of hemorrhagic strokes are intracerebral stroke and subarachnoid stroke. Intracerebral is when a blood vessel in the brain bursts and spills into the surrounding brain tissue. This results in the damage of brain cells and including the cells beyond the spill which then, aren’t able receive enough blood.
Many of the internal organs of the body are protected by a membrane called the mesothelium. This membrane actually consists of two layers of cells. The inner layer surrounds the organs, and the second is a sac surrounding the inner layer. When organs within this membrane must move, expand or contract -- such as the heart, lungs, bladder, and so on, they are able to do so because the mesothelium produces a lubricating fluid between the two layers. Mesothelioma most often begins in the pleura or peritoneum.
Tissue Engineering Strategies for Myocardial Regeneration 3. Therapeutic alternatives for myocardial regeneration Describe what myocardial regeneration is. Describe the difficulties to be overcome in myocardial regeneration. Describe general strategies, current and potential Myocardial regeneration is the process by which injured myocardium is restored to its original structure and function. As seen above the normal healing process for post-infarction cardiac tissue involves the generation of a fibrous scar, which provides mechanical support but is devoid of functional cardiomyocytes.
When people find out they have a major heart problem, the biggest question is what surgery will benefit them the most. Due to open heart surgery being very risky, many patients can be too old, or too sick for it. In earlier years if that happened doctors would put them on medicine to see if that helped but with today 's new technology and doctors learning how to use new devices there’s options for everyone. A MitraClip is another device saving people who aren 't capable of having open heart surgery. MitraClip was made to help people who have mitral valve regurgitation, this is when blood begins flowing backwards through the mitral valve.
Epithelial cell migrating across wound usually move along the basal lamina or fibrin deposits, this phenomenon is called contact guidance and is an important factor in epithelial migration. Epithelial migration is followed by increased mitosis of epithelium. Recent evidence suggests that a water soluble heat labile substance called chalcone which is secreted at the wound site is responsible for regulation for mitosis
This can occur through vesicles that are formed by throttling the plasma membrane and then penetrating into the cell (endocytosis), or they merge with it to free their contents (exocytosis) outside. There are three types of endocytosis known: • phagocytosis - very common among unicellular protists, who use it to feed themselves; in the human body, some types of white blood cells incorporate cells and foreign substances into phagocytosis. • pinocytosis - a constant activity of pinocytosis is carried out by the endothelium, the tissue that covers the blood capillaries and which allows the cells of the surrounding tissues to withdraw fluids from the blood. • Receptor-mediated endocytosis - a quick and efficient method for withdrawing substances that can be found in the environment even at low concentrations. Finally, exocytosis is important for the secretion of many substances, including digestive enzymes produced by the pancreas and materials for the construction of the plant cell wall.
Lymphovenous Bypass WHAT IS LYMPHOVENOUS BYPASS? The lymphatic system is not very well known, but it is vital to the operation of the human body. It works alongside the bloodstream absorbing any leaked fluid from the blood vessels, this is known as lymph. Lymph nodes filter the lymph and put it back into the blood, but if these lymph nodes are damaged or removed the result is lymphedema, which is the swelling of a limb creating pain and immobility. Lymphovenous Bypass is a microsurgical procedure that opens pathways for blocked lymphatic vessels in the lymphatic system.
A fatty layer called myelin protects the nerve cell fibers by repelling water. The tissues hold more water if the protective myelin is damaged. This shows up on a scan as a white or darkened area, and it can be used to evaluate multiple sclerosis.
Nursing consideration: Require regular monitoring of activated partial thromboplasitn time (aPTT) and needed frequent heparin dose changes (Brunner and Suddarth’s, et al, 2010: 765). Fibrinolytic therapy: This therapy is given to dissolve the thrombus in the artery and restore the blood flow. There are two fibrinolytic drugs which are streptokinase and Recombinant tissue plasminogen activators (r-TPA) which includes Alteplase, reteplase and tenecteplase (Brunner and Suddarth’s, et al, 2010: 772). Fibrinolytic therapy would be commenced within 4-6 hours of myocardial infarction to restore blood flow, reduce oxygen demand and reduce myocardial tissue damage (Silvestri,
Ventriculoperitoneal shunts, which reroute CSF to the abdomen and endoscopic third ventriculostomy, which places a fenestration on the floor of the third ventricle and allows for CSF to directly flow into the subarachnoid space, are both viable choices for management of hydroencephalus. Endoscopic third ventriculostomy has the additional advantage of obtaining a biopsy during the same procedure, allowing for staging of the tumor and consequently, better-informed decisions on treatment. If tumor progression or high-grade gliomas are identified after the initial intervention, patients can elect to undergo a mixed combination of more aggressive treatments, such as surgical resection of the tumor, radiotherapy, and
When Kawasaki disease develops, the walls of these arteries become inflamed. Inside the blood vessels there is a cell layer called endothelium, it protects the vessel and prevents blood cells from leaving. During Kawasaki disease something triggers and causes the endothelial cells to become activated and causes the cells of the immune system to stick to the endothelium and seep through the blood vessel wall. Inflammation is caused by the immune cells gathering in the wall and sending chemical signals that duplicate more cells and damage the vessel wall. Intravenous gamma globulin interacts with the cells to quiet down the immune response.