Ecotourism has been implemented as a form of sustainable tourism at national parks as well as at some wetland areas in Cambodia such as Tonle Sap Biosphere Reserve where the areas themselves can attract tourist’s attention (Sam, 2000). This policy intended to make the tourism sector in sustainable development by conserving the natural resources, alleviating poverty, and diversifying tourist products (MoT, 2008). More than this, the profile of the country was also expected to be well-recognized via this contemporary tourism. The policy itself follows the seven core program of the strategy of the GMS: marketing, human resource development, pro poor tourism, private sector participation, facilitation of travel, and tourism development in priority zones (GMS, 2014). It is also stated in National Report for Rio+20 that tourism is one of the key sectors that help Cambodia to sustain the development by contributing to the economic growth through job opportunity and revenue generation (Silva-Leander, et al., 2012).
Registering, inspecting and classifying accommodations in the tourism sector, travel operations and the catering services. The Ghana Tourism Authority is also responsible for promoting and marketing Ghana as a tourism destination. The Ghana Immigration service takes charge in regulating the entry and departure of tourist to and from the country. Traditional rulers are very important stakeholders in development of Ghana’s tourism. The traditional rulers often are the owners of lands that might be needed for infrastructure in the future and also controls the tourism sites.
Cultural Tourism has always been associated positively with the promotion of one’s culture. After all, the best way to understand a culture is to experience it personally. Apart from promoting a destination’s culture, and heritage, Cultural Tourism benefits the destination’s economy,
Residents’ perceptions are critical factor to identify the goals for heritage preservation (Jimura, 2011). Residents give a positive response to the suggestion of heritage management, and to ensure the heritage sites continue to be beneficial the community in the future. Local people's perceptions keep changing the decision making of heritage conservation. Their perceptions are important guidelines that government or organizers can follow investigating for cultural heritage promotion. To ensure successful in heritage conservation, it is very important to have the local residents’ support.
Cultural tourism holds the main influence in visitors’ decision to travel to destinations in different parts of the globe. This in turn has led to cultural attractions being important in the development of tourism in most regions of the world, for example, Europe, North America and developing countries. Cultural attractions are perceived as being icons of important streams of global culture. This global conception of culture has led to the designation of world heritage sites which attract millions of tourists annually. At national levels, culture is perceived as playing an important role in establishing and reinforcing people’s unique identity and sense of belonging to particular lineages.
The provision of public goods, for example clean beaches, is vital for tourists. Therefore, the government plays a crucial role in tourism if a country wants to create an environment that is capable to compete. Role: The role of governments is a crucial and complex aspect of tourism, involving policies, building infrastructure, and creating political stability if they want tourism to thrive in their countries. According to Baum and Szivas (2008) the government has great potential in shaping the economy and its development in all countries. They also argue that the government can create employment opportunities and thus contribute to the social and economic development of a
CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Introduction Among the common heritage to be preserved as a heritage is found in the form of historic sites, buildings and monuments, nature, artifacts and local culture. This heritage should be preserved because it reflects the cultural life of a nation and thus represent civilization in the area. In this chapter, the researcher understand the scope of this study, relevant information about the tourism can be presented with a statement such as definition of tourists, tourism, type of tourism, tourism perspective and heritage tourism. Furthermore, another aspect is about the tourist, type of tourists, tourism planning, tourism planning approach and component of tourism planning to attract tourist to the area. Other research on tourism attraction also important to review from the research.
Decision making processes of potential tourists and level of satisfaction regarding tourists experience are greatly affected by the tourist’s destination image therefore tourist’s destination images plays a significant role. Aaker suggested in his article that in the tourist destination choice process, the image of destination area is critical factor. In tourism the mere extension of the image in the mind of tourist is more important than true representation of the image of any given location or region. Aaker stated in his article that the image perception can largely be inaccurate about a foreign and its people. However, as action proceeds on the basis of subjective reality therefore, probing destination image is an immensely important exercise.
FACTORS LIMITING SUSTAINABLE TOURISM DEVELOPMENT IN TOURIST ATTRACTIONS This section outlines some of the key points regarding limitation to tourism development in tourism attractions. The literature discusses the willingness of tourists to visit the cultural heritage sites as factor affecting sustainable tourist attractions. According to Abuamoud, (2014) a logistic regression model was employed in the analyse factors that affected tourism at cultural heritage sites in Northern Badia. The study found that education, variety of sites, multiple destinations, cost, and reasons for the visit had a significant impact on tourists' willingness to travel. Therefore improving cultural heritage sites and working closely with local communities to expand training and funding was highly recommended.
Other examples of cultural tourist attractions include historical places, monuments, ancient temples, zoos, aquaria, museums and art galleries, botanical gardens, buildings and structures (e.g., castles, libraries, former prisons, skyscrapers, bridges), theme parks and carnivals, living history museums, ethnic enclave communities, historic trains and cultural events. Factory tours, industrial heritage, creative art and crafts workshops are the object of cultural niches like industrial tourism and creative tourism. Many tourist attractions are also landmarks. Tourist attractions often provide free promotional brochures and flyers in information centres, fast food restaurants, hotel and motel rooms or lobbies, and rest