Diesel Merger Report

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EMISSION CHARACTERISTICS OF TURBOCHARGED SINGLE CYLINDER DIESEL ENGINE

ABSTRACT
Pollution due to auto exhaust has assumed menacing proportion in the developing countries, like India, where its contribution is nearly 45% - 75 % of the total air pollution in urban areas. Diesel powered vehicles and equipment account for nearly half of all nitrogen oxides (NOx) and more than two thirds of all particulate matter emission. For long turbochargers have been used to improve the power harnessed from the IC engine at the same input fuel quantity and without increasing the combustion chamber capacity. In this experiment we study the effect of turbocharger on the exhaust emission of a diesel engine. The experimental study is done on a 350 CC single
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rich mixture with equivalence ratio more than 1. This conditions occur during starting especially in cold conditions, sudden acceleration and loading.
Due to inadequate time for combustion during quick strokes of the piston at higher rotational speeds.
Unburned fuel or partially burned fuel entrapped in the crevice volumes of the cylinder wall.

It was observed that the HC emissions for bio-diesel blend was less than their diesel counterparts. This is because of the lower ignition delay of bio-diesel and hence more fuel is burnt for the same time period resulting in less HC. The turbocharger ensures more mixing of air and fuel leading to a homogeneous mixture which burns cleaner. This reduces the HC emission by a small extent by usage of turbocharger. Hence the HC emission for bio-diesel with turbocharger is the least in all speeds. Naturally aspirated engine with diesel fuel emitted more HC.

Figure- 4.2. Speed vs HC

4.3 CO2
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But at higher concentration it is an important greenhouse gas and is a major contributor to global warming. Carbon-di-oxide is a major component of vehicle exhaust.
Figure- 4.3. Speed vs CO2

The products of complete combustion are water vapour and carbon-di-oxide alone. If more fuel is burnt more CO2 emissions are observed in the exhaust. Usage of bio-diesel
Increases the CO2 emissions a little since more fuel is burnt due to less ignition delay. Turbocharger has proved to reduce the CO2 emission since the excess of oxygen is used for the formation of water vapour (H20) rather than CO2.

4.4 CO Emission
CO emission are formed due to inadequate oxygen to form carbon-di-oxide from carbon. CO is a colourless, odourless gas which is also poisonous when inhaled continuously. In CI engines the CO emissions are far lesser than SI engines due to presence of lean mixture present.
By less ignition delay, CO emission is also reduced by turbocharger as more oxygen is available for conversion of carbon to CO2.
Biodiesel have more cetane number it help to increase ignition delay and gets complete

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