Bottom Chamber liquid: Ethanol has a very low boiling point. When you heat the bottom chamber with your hand, the liquid molecules in the hand boiler increase in kinetic energy (increased temperature); the liquid expands. This rise in temperature causes the liquid to start to evaporate. Because there is some evaporation, but no condensation, the equilibrium is ruined in the hand boiler until the evaporated molecules lose kinetic energy and become liquid again (cool off). Bottom Chamber gas: When you apply heat to the bottom chamber, the gas increases in pressure because of the evaporated molecules.
c. My results also matched my prediction regarding the amount of carbohydrates left after fermentation in the flasks. Based on my predictions, there should be more carbohydrates left in the experimental after fermentation since there was less alcohol produced. The lower percentage of alcohol suggests that there was less reactions that occurred, therefore causing less alcohol
Diluents do not react in alkylation chemistry, but they take up space and decrease the effective area for isobutane and olefin to contact. With less contact, side reactions like polymerization are more likely to occur; polymerization reactions are a direct acid consumer. Comparing the FCCU and Coker BB, Coker BB contains far more contaminants and diluents than FCCU BB (see Table 2, pg.4). By lowering the amount of contaminants and diluents, acid consumption reduced 0.2
Diesel engines outperform and produce less emission rates on Earth than gasoline engines. On the other hand, gasoline engines cost less to run daily. With the EPA making diesel emission standard more stricter, the emission rate for diesels have decreased. Also with different equipment being installed to diesels, the power has increased too. How much have the EPA standards lower the emission rates?
the average fuel economy for a gas truck is around 14mpg. Along with the poor fuel economy, the gas that goes through the truck does not burn as clean. When the gas does not burn as clean, that means that it puts out more pollution than a diesel engine. A diesel engine also has 25-30% better fuel economy that a gas engine. With the 25-30% better fuel economy, a diesel engine can deliver much more fuel economy that electric hybrids.
This could have been because it was more sterically hinder since the carbonyl group was connected to a primary carbon. The third ester which reacted was ethyl butanoate since it was a bit more sterically hinder than the ethyl acetate because the carbonyl group was connected to a secondary carbon. Both ethyl acetate and ethyl butanoate had electronic factors of being electron donating making the carbonyls less reactive so the order depended more on the steric factor. The slowest ester to react was the ethyl benzoate because of the greater steric hindrance since the carbonyl was connected to a benzene ring which making it hard for the nucleophile to attack. The carbonyl was directly connected to a tertiary carbon, but that was also in a ring.
Km and Vmax could not be determined accurately using the Michaelis-Menten graph as it doesn’t plateau at 37/65°C , because a high enough substrate concentration was not used at regular intervals. Table 6 shows that Km value for 65°C is lower than 37°C which suggest that a higher affinity of trypsin to BAPNA at 65°C; because a higher collision frequency would occur due to an increase in kinetic energy and seems more efficient. However, a higher Vmax at 37°C indicates that trypsin was saturated with BAPNA because the optimum temperature of trypsin is 37°C. In figure 1 at higher temperatures the reaction plateaus at a faster rate as the enzymes active sites become denatured. The Eadie-Hofstee kinetics graphs shows the value for Km at 37°C is higher than at 65°C, which supports calculations of Km and Vmax found from graphpad.
Oxygenated compounds Oxygenated fuel is a compound that has a chemical compound containing oxygen. It helps to burn fuel more efficiently so reduces some type of atmospheric pollution. It reduces carbon mono oxide emission and smog formation. Oxygenated fuel allows fuel in vehicles to burn more efficiently because more of fuel is burning so there are fewer chemical pollutants released. Oxygenated fuel also help to cut down renewable fossil fuel consumption.
The large compression rate permits the air in the cylinder to gain warmth in order to ignite the fuel. Opponents of diesel engines have asserted that diesel vehicles emit 10 times more nitrogen oxides than non-diesel cars, diesel vehicles don’t offer high-speed performance, and that they need to be repaired more frequently in the short term so they are able to continue operating. Contrary to that, diesel engines are a better option because they offer a better economic mileage/price per gallon ratio, diesel engines also survive more than their gasoline counterparts, and diesel engines release a smaller amount of Carbon-Dioxide than a petrol engine. Firstly, diesel engines are a better option due to the
The effectiveness was based on the color scale. The color scale was based on amount of oxygen produced by the chemical reaction.The chemical guaiacol was used during the experiment to easily see the speed of the chemical reaction because guaiacol turns brown in the presence of oxygen. On average the pH 8 had a color level of 6.17 more at the 5 minute check than pH 3. This is because the acidic pH 3 denatured the enzyme and it was not able to bind with the substrate to produce oxygen therefore there was less of it. Another factor that can affect the chemical reaction is temperature.