Contrast i. Wavelength of radiation The range of visible light is 400-700nm. Different rays have different wavelengths as shown in fig 1. So, before the experimentation one should know the specific wavelength of a particular radiation ii. Light refraction and image magnification Light is refracted when it enters from a medium of light into glass. When a light bends while passing through a lens, then light rays are focused at a point that particular point is known as Focal point and due to which a larger image of the object is observed.
The signal can be measured very quickly. The time element per sample is reduced to a matter of a few seconds rather than several minutes. Most interferometers employ a beamsplitter which takes the incoming infrared beam and divides it into two optical beams. One beam reflects off of a flat mirror which is fixed in place. The other beam reflects off of a flat mirror which allows this mirror to move a very short distance (typically a few millimeters) away from the beamsplitter.
Measure of Dispersion Measure of Location Measure of location helps to report a typical value in the set of observations. The five measure of location are: 1. Arithmetic Mean Arithmetic mean is calculated by adding all the values in the data set then dividing it with the number
Records of seismic waves allow seismologists to map the interior of the Earth, and locate and measure the size of these different sources. In this dissertation two different type of sensor are used for the frequency measurement (1) Accelerometer (Kinemetrics FBA-2 Episensor) (2) Short period sensors (Kinemetrics SS-1) [Passcal Instrument Centre]. Accelerometer: It also known as strong-motion sensors, are designed to measure the large amplitude, high frequency seismic waves typical of large local earthquakes, and operate in the frequency band 0 Hz to 100+ Hz. Kinemetrics FBA-2 Episensor: The Kinemetrics Episensor force-balanced accelerometer is a uniaxial surface package designed primarily for structural engineering applications. However, it can be used in a variety of applications for measuring accelerations up to ±4g and down to the ambient noise level.
Obtaining a Hyperspectral image can be tackled by any overhead method from airborne methods to space based techniques, the use of a particular grating will help in the dispersion of the spectrum. There are four methods for the Hyperspectral sensors to create the Hyperspectral cube, Spatial scanning, Spectral scanning, Snapshot imaging and Spatio-spectral scanning. The choice of a specific technique depends on many factors from the specific application to each methods advantages and
Fig. 1.Sensor Measuring Circuit The sensor constitute of six universal configuration pins, in which heater pin (H) provided with 5v for heating the coil. Circuit voltage (Vc) is applied across the sensor’s pin (A and B) and the load resistor (RL) connected in series. The change of sensor resistance (Rs) is measured indirectly as a change in voltage across the load resistance. ii) Calibration: Gas sensors are needed to be calibrated and periodically checked to ensure sensor accuracy.
This signal is send to the entire ultrasonic and LM35 sensor which are located around 3 sides (Front, Right, and Left) of the robot. When LM35 is detected, the ultrasonic sensor starts to sense the living things. When the ultrasonic sensor is detected, based upon the priority shortest distance to the robot is measured. Then the robot will rotated towards the nearest ultrasonic detection and move forward to the fire slowly. For this slow approach of the robot towards fire algorithms are made.
INTRODUCTION Remote sensing is the non-contact recording of information from the ultraviolet, visible infrared, and microwave regions of the electromagnetic spectrum by mean of instruments such as cameras, scanners, lasers, linear arrays and arrays located on platforms such as aircraft or spacecraft, and the analysis of acquired information by mean of visual and digital image processing. In a simple sense, remote sensing is the science of obtaining information about objects or areas from a distance, usually from aircraft or satellites and it is focused on energy that is reflected, emitted, or scattered by the Earth and its atmosphere from various portions (“wavelengths”) of the electromagnetic spectrum. These gadgets have a greatly improved ability to receive and record information about an object without any physical contact. Often, these sensors are positioned away from the object of interest by using helicopters, planes, and satellites. Most sensing devices record
millimeter-wave radar) Limited reaction time Near instantaneous reaction time III. CONCLUSION The system achieved an accuracy above 90 % for all of the scenarios evaluated, including night time operation. In addition, the false alarm rate in the on-the-road area is below 5 %. Our experiments showed that our head pose estimation algorithm is robust to extreme facial deformations.While our system provided encouraging results, we expectthat improving the facial feature detection in challenging situations (e.g., profile faces, faces with glasses with thickframes) will boost the performance of our system. Currently, we are also working on improving the pupil detection using Hough transform-based techniques to further improve the gaze
Another method makes use of formation of shadows by change in position of sun to locate its current position. Generally 4 LDR sensors are placed closed together separated by dark partitions, with one LDR sensor in each partition. The readings obtained from different LDR sensors are compared to determine the relative illuminance and hence find the position of sun relative to the panel. This data is fed to a micro-controller that computes the difference and signals the actuators to align the panel. This method of tracking the sun is inexpensive and relatively simple.