However pathogens have mechanisms where it can mask its presence, such that the host would not be able to detect, and release antibodies to destroy the invading pathogens. The only way the host can eliminate pathogens, is by releasing antibodies, to form an antigen- antibody complex and finally be removed via phagocytosis. The masking of its presence in the host could be one of the many effects of evolution. As microbes from the past go through different unfavorable conditions over different periods of time, they undergo mutations often and some of these mutations can cause the microbe to have favorable characteristics that allow them to survive in such harsh conditions and pass on these characteristics to its
This piece of writing is likely to be inspired from that book. Taking everything into consideration, we can sum up that microorganisms are categorized in six subdivisions including Bacteria and viruses. It is obvious that each of them is characterized by variable features and functions. And it is our duty to expand our knowledge and awareness in order to prevent probable health problems. Reference 1.
A study conducted by Marti et al (2013) found that the spread of antibacterial resistance genes came from wastewater treatment plant contaminants into the environment. Antibacterial genes were found more prevalent in downstream samples compared to upstream samples of bacterial communities. Antibiotic resistant genes have contaminated the public source water through the water supply system that allows antibiotics to thrive in the environment. To understand the mechanisms behind ARG, Cirz et al (2005) tested how inhibiting the pathway of a protease will affect E coli to gain resistance. Their findings showed that by inhibiting the mutation, it could be one of the possible ways of preventing bacteria from becoming resistant in the environment.
the film. The surface morphology of the films was observed using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The magnetic properties of the films were analyzed using magnetic force microscopy (MFM). RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS The room temperature XRD pattern for the annealed film with the thickness of 135 nm and 260 nm showed the coexistence of both austenite and martensite phase. While increasing the film thickness to 595 nm, L21 cubic structure is observed.
Such as in Selfndel. The second type is antibiotics that affect the proteins in the bacteria cells. This is another way to destroy the bacteria. For example, the antibiotics that name are Lenkomaisen and Macrolede. Another type of antibiotics is which attack the cell membrane.
In addition, a weak disorder-induced feature at 1620 cm-1 can also be observed in Raman spectra of shock-synthesized samples. Based on these results, we can conclude that shock loading can not produce pristine graphene, but graphene with many defects due to its extreme loading process. Shock wave action generates high temperature, high pressure and high strain rate. This extremely nonequilibrium 12 process may induce considerable defects in shock-synthesized products. This has also been verified in shock synthesized diamond and graphite .
Aerin Nortier Grade 11.2 Biology research project Introduction Bacteria are everywhere some harmful and others not, without bacteria the world would be nothing. In this research paper I will be discussing bacteria, anti-bacterial agents, pros and cons of bacteria and my conductive experiment on the growth and the killing of bacteria. Bacteria are single cellular organisms that most commonly reproduce through means of binary fission. They were first discovered by Anton Leeuwenhoek in 1676 and are classified as Monera in the five kingdom classification system. Anti-bacterial agents kill or inhibit bacterial growth.
Ultra violet (UV) filters are an important class of emerging contaminants. According to the EU Cosmetics Directive for commercial cosmetic, twenty-eight UV filters have been listed consisting of up to 10% as an active ingredients and 25% for titanium dioxide. These UV filters are not only found in sunscreens, but in lotions, lipsticks, shower gels, hair sprays and shampoos. When these filter are released into the water by showering and wastewater disposal they dissolve into the water and accumulate in the fish communities. A certain chemical, oxybenzone, was found in most sunscreens that benefitted humans but not the organisms that inhabit marine ecosystem.
Absorption of water by alimentary canal. 3. Re-absorption of water by tubules of the nephron in kidneys. • The Pro’s and cons of [reverse] Osmosis: [http://blog.watertech.com/reverse-osmosis-advantages-and-disadvantages/] [https://waterfilterhub.com/pros-and-cons-of-reverse-osmosis/] The advantage is mostly that they remove many harmful contaminants from the water completely or greatly reduce their number, whereas the disadvantage is that the better ones tend to be quite expensive. • Importance of Osmosis in the industry: Water covers 70% of the Earth’s surface and is salt water, therefore not edible.
Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy is defined as the measurement of the attenuation of a beam of light after it pass through the sample or after reflection from a sample.Single wavelength or over an extended range can be the absorption measurement of UV spectroscopy . The ultraviolet region falls in the range between 190-380 nm, the visible region fall between 380-750 nm. (1) Principle Origin of UV-visible spectra When the matter interacts with radiation ,various process such as absorbance, fluorescence/phosphorescence ,reflection, scattering, and photochemical reaction can be occur.The measuring of UV-visible spectra is only depend the absorbance due to absorption of light by matter can increase the energy level of molecule.. The sum of the molecule’s