Abstract Research methods are procedures used for gathering information. The information observed is individual or aggregate data on a phenomenon. Traditionally, there are wide ranges of research methods in criminal justice. The most commonly used are survey methods and data analysis. According to Kleck et al; (2006) “survey research is the dominant method of collecting information followed by use of archived data.’’ Furthermore, the most important sources of crime information in U.S criminal justice system are the FBI’s Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) and the BJS’ National Crime Victimization Survey.
Annotated Bibliography Books Dudley, William, et al., editors. Police Brutality. D.L. Bender, 1991. • Police Brutality gives information on how police brutality is a widespread issue in the United States and explains different controversies and cases that relate to police brutality.
Though these sources have their strengths in reporting data on crime they also contain flaws that can affect the outcome of accurate reports. The Uniform Crime Report (UCR) was established in 1929 by the International Association of Chiefs of police to meet a need for a reliable and standard form of crime statistics for the nation. “Today the Federal Bureau of Investigation is in charged of collecting UCRs from 17,000 law enforcement agencies across the nation this allows for large amounts of data to be comprehended by the
Department of Justice plays an important role in controlling crime through police practices, prosecution, crime prevention, and rehabilitation of offenders. Within the Department of Justice are the FBI, the DEA, and the U.S. Marshal’s Service. The terrorist attacks of 2001 necessitated some degree of reorganization with the Department of Justice. Currently, of the 65 components of the Department of Justice, those organizations having the greatest responsibility for law enforcement are the FBI, DEA, ATF, the U.S. Marshal’s Service, and related agencies such as the U.S. Attorney’s Offices. The most visible state law enforcement agency is the state police or highway patrol agency.
Lawmakers and criminal justice personnel are meant to be guarded against discriminatory laws, policies and practices and to guarantee equal and effective protection of the law to everyone. However, the sad reality is that discrimination does exist in our criminal justice system. This paper emphasises to show how certain groups in society such as the aboriginals or indigenous people have been discriminated against in some form or another by the police or by the criminal justice system itself. Racism and discrimination for Aboriginal people is a very real existence. It exists in many various forms - overrepresentation, over-policing, and under-policing.
To determine a solution that will be both effective and constitutional, we must look at statistics and research that has been conducted to determine the best course of action. Instead of banning or limiting guns, the evidence will show that removing the current restrictions and targeting individuals instead of guns will be a more effective process. The topic of gun control has two polarized opinions. One such opinion targets the individuals responsible for the crime, instead of just the weapons. John Moorhouse and Brent Wanner tackle the issue of gun control in their article “Does Gun Control Reduce Crime Or Does Crime Increase Gun Control”, which was published in 2006 in the twenty-sixth volume of the Cato Journal.
Task 1; In your own words define the term criminal psychology There are many reasons for the disagreement and unofficial definition of the term ‘’Criminal Psychology’’. If I asked a stranger on the street to give me their definition of the topic, they would more than likely say ‘’someone who deals with catching criminals’’ or ‘’them people from criminal minds’’. In my opinion it’s much more than that. Criminal Psychology is the finding, studying and understanding of people who disobey the legal system. Task 2; Explain the difference between crime and deviance and give three examples of each.
It is also called as “zero tolerance” policing. Sousa and Kelling (2006) states that the broken windows policing focuses on strict enforcement of law against disorderly behaviour and minor offenses like prostitution, public urination, and aggressive panhandling. This step is vital as it is to prevent more serious crime from happening. Skogan (1990, 1992) failed to find proof that the enforcement of broken windows policing reduced additional disorder or more serious crimes to occur. Weisburd and Eck (2004) also states that New York City uses this type of policing in 1990s and many NYC officials admitted that the crime rate dropped because of broken windows policing but many people also say that there are some other reasons for the reduction of crime rates in New York City.
When policy and claimsmakers label crimes as social problems, they do not always account for all representations of crime. They neglect to realize that crime is a reality that filters through a series of human decisions running the full scale of the criminal justice system (Silver 265). Jeffery Reiman states within “A Crime by Any Other Name” that, “although there is a wide range of behaviors that the law defines as criminal, people tend to view crime as involving only certain kinds of acts committed by particular populations of individuals”. For example, the rhetoric presented within the War on Terror in the United States lead to moral panic which exaggerated and distorted perceived deviant behavior (Silver 330). Similarly, the rhetoric presented
INTRODUCTION Obtaining a detailed account of a crime is often a challenge for the police and most of the time it relies heavily on the collecting of physical evidence and also the questioning of eyewitnesses. All information is integral for the police in their direction of investigation, therefore it is important to understand the types of information and what it does to help with solving the case. The different types of information can be gathered from victims, witnesses, offenders and form of objects such as, forensic samples, audio and video recordings and documents (Stelfox, 2012: 86). Whilst physical evidence are usally being further analysed before elucidating more about a crime, eyewitnesses are often the next important source for enquiring more leads to further investigation. In absence to definitive proof, eyewitnesses’ accounts often act as vital evidence to the police and judges in their decision to prosecute a suspect.
• - Researchers interview household members in a nationally representative sample (42,000 households) • - Data is collected regarding frequency, characteristics, and consequences of criminal victimization by a variety of crimes, many of which may not have been reported to law enforcement. • Advantage: Provides estimates of the total amount of annual crimes, not only those reported to police. Helps us understand why crimes are not reported and the criminal event influences (whether police will ever know it occurred) • Problems: Over reporting due to victims ' misinterpretation of events. EX: A lost wallet may be reported as stolen -Under reporting due to the embarrassment of reporting crime to interviewers, fear of getting in trouble, or forgetting an
Even though O.J. Simpson was going to trial for the murders of Nicole Brown Simpson and Ronald Lyle Goldman, the New York Times was wrong to violate the NPPA Code of Ethics by editing and misrepresenting O.J. Simpson’s mugshot. This violation did not only affect the New York Times, but also O.J. Simpson and his family.
In the article “Lineup Procedure in Criminal Cases,” Paul Bergman is informing us on the ins and outs of criminal lineups. He states that lineups are not a more accurate way of an identification than showups or photo identification. Studies show witnesses are not more likely to accurately identify a suspect in a lineup than any other pretrial identification procedure. During a lineup, a prosecutor is usually present along with police officers. Attorneys can also be there representing the suspect that was charged with a crime.
Both, the Uniform Crime Report and the National Crime Victimization Survey addresses how we should shape policies yearly. Throughout the UCR report, crime index offenses are the ones being reported such as violent crimes of murder and non-negligent manslaughter, robbery, forcible rape, arson and etc. The crime report itself involves around 17,000 law enforcement agencies reporting yearly. Not to Mention, one of the differences between the two, is that the UCR reports crimes known to the police which is why the NCVS crime report was created to allow the statistics to be more accurate by allowing victim citizens to anonymously mention their crime experiences that were not reported to the police. The fact that both, provide us with crime statistics
Criminal profiling is defined as an investigative and behavioral tool that is aimed at assisting those in the investigative field in profiling criminal offenders who are in most cases unknown. Criminal profiling goes by many names, such as: offender profiling, criminological profiling, criminal investigative analysis, criminal personality profiling and behavioral profiling. Criminal profilers are agents that study and analyze the behavior of an unknown criminal based on information that is gathered by his or her kills. The Federal Bareau of Investigation, or the Behavioral Analysis Unit rely on criminal profilers to provide psychological profiles of the offender. Technically, there is no official job title in the F.B.I called “criminal profiler.”