Essay On Urban Runoff

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surface runoff happen when the rainfall intensity exceeds the soil’s infiltration capacity while saturation excess surface runoff is due to waterlogged on the soil where the soil no longer possess storage for any additional rainfall (Dunne & Black, 1970; Dunne, 1983). For the landscape which is prone to VSA hydrology, climatic variables used to determined the nature and extend of surface runoff (Cooper, 2010).

c. Urban Runoff
Urban runoff refers to any storm water and non-storm water runoff where it is a surface runoff of rainwater created by urbanization. Urban runoff usually contributes to the major source of urban flooding and urban water pollution. EPA define urban runoff as a storm water that come from city street and adjacent domestic or commercial properties which carries various kind of pollutant into the sewer system and receiving water.
Alteration on urban soil contain a large number of infrastructural components (e.g trenches that act as a
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Different type of soil will have different infiltration rate. Silt and clay will generate more surface runoff as it has a slow infiltration rate compared to sand which have higher infiltration rate. The volume and rate of IEOF depends on the rate and soil hydraulic conductivity (Emmet, 1978). The hydraulic conductivity is one of the soil’s hydraulic properties that represents the measurement of the soil’s ability to transmit water through pore spaces or fractures where it depends on the structure of soil matrix, size of soil grain, fluid type and relative amount of soil fluid in the soil matrix. At a field scale, IEOF tends to increase down slopes as both surface and subsurface run-off from higher areas increases the hydraulic load, and hence the probability of overland flow in receiving areas (Nash, et. Al.,

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