The host can be effected by the consumption of contaminated water or food, or having contact with the animals or people. Penicillin, is the first antibiotic that is medically used to fight off a large range of bacterial infection. For this experiment, we will be using ampicillin, it is a part of the penicillin drug group. The ampicillin inhibits the bacteria with the result of killing the bacterium or prevents it from multiplying. “When a bacterium multiplies, small holes open up in their cell walls as the daughter cells divide.
On the subject of this problem, Ed Warren writes: “It would be tempting to blame the pesky bacteria for developing resistance. However, they are just following their own Darwinian destiny by trying to survive. There are several other factors to consider, all to which contribute to the problem: addressing just one and ignoring the rest is unlikely to bring about the desired result” (2016). Using antibiotics rationally and logically is key and supported by most UK medical authorities. Like Levy president of APUDA, Warren is a firm believer that the over-prescription of antibiotics leads to them just floating around in the environment giving them easy access to passing bacterium; this leads to AMR or antimicrobial resistance.
When testing one organism, for example Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the dilution is prepared in agar slopes but at this time it is necessary to prepare another identical set to be inoculated with the organism which is control. To make dilution a small volume of water is used and then the dilute is added to agar that melted and then cooled to 60degrees C. If chocolate agar is required blood is added, and the medium must be heated before addition of the antibiotic. Petri dishes with 90mm diameter are convenient to be used and one ml of the desired drug dilutions is added to 19ml of the broth. Agar dilution factor must be allowed in the first calculation as follows: • The final volume of the medium in the plate equals 20ml • Top concentration of the antibiotic equals 64mgL • Drug total amount equals 1280 microgram is added to 1ml water • 2mls of 1280microgram per ml is required to start the dilution equals 2560micrograms in 2mls. • 1.28mls of 2000micrograms per ml ± 0.72ml of water.
However, drug abusers and individuals who suffer from weakened immune systems make up a small percentage of the population, which is why B. subtilis is seen as a non-pathogenic bacteria. B. subtilis can be used as a biological control throughout many different commercial industries. B. subtilis has the ability to produce large amounts of antibacterial and antifungal metabolites that are utilized in the suppression of phytopathogenic microorganisms. Its ability to secrete its own proteins into the medium allows it to
Gram-negative bacteria contain a layer of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) When the bacteria enters the body, the LPS triggers the body’s immune response. The body recognises a cytokine reaction from the bacteria which is toxic to the body and responds by inflaming the tissues and blood vessels. The certain cells used against the bacteria Bordetella Pertussis include innate and specific defenses, but the defensive antigens have not been exclusively identified. Explain how the disease can be treated. Pertussis is generally treated with antibiotics and it is vital to use the antibiotics early on in the infection or it will have little to no effect.
This transformation usually occurs within plasmids, which are closed circular molecules made up of double stranded DNA. The function of the plasmid is to provide bacteria with genetic advantages such as antibiotic resistance. In this lab, the plasmids provided the ampicillin resistance and the fluorescence. If the bacterial cells are grown in the presence of the antibiotic ampicillin then only the cells that took up the plasmid have the resistance gene. As a result the resistance gene will have to keep the plasmid and the GFP gene.
The bacterial plates also suggested that Ampicillin was ineffective in killing the bacteria, as zones of inhibition were not present, despite using two disks of this drug. These results could possibly be explained by the properties of these antibiotics and the bacteria used in the experiment. Bacterial enzymes, such as beta-lactamase, cannot be broken down by Ampicillin. The bacterial plasmid carrying this enzyme disables the Ampicillin placed in the agar, allowing for more bacterial growth. In this case, it is
Tryptophan is an essential amino acid, which is either synthesized or injested from the environment in bacterial cells.The production of tryptophan is an energy consuming process. So bacteria need to ensure that only when the concentration of tryptophan is low inside cell , it has to produce tryptophan. The trp operon is a repressible system that regulates the biosynthesis of tryptophan. The gene for the repressor is located not near to the promoter,but in a different location.It has an operator which is embedded in the promoter,a leader sequence(trpL) and 5 structural genes(trpE,trpD,trpC,trpB,trpA). Each gene encodes for proteins in the trp synthesis pathway.
In order for vaccines to work appropriately, they have to operate in a very convoluted way to make sure they live up to their standards. 1. Vaccines are developed by using the bacteria’s specimen that has been either killed or damaged which are dissolved in a solution. When the vaccine is injected into the body, the specimen revives that person’s immune system. After being injected, the immune system will now fight against the microbe by forming antibodies.
Antibiotics selectively target bacteria for eradication as opposed to the host’s cells by acting on things that are particular to bacteria. A number of bacteria produce peptidoglycan that makes up their cell walls. Human cells don’t produce nor need this this, so antibiotics that target peptidoglycan destroy the bacteria without harming good cells. Metabolic pathways are another route in which bacteria are damaged without the host cells. Sulfonamides prohibit bacteria from producing folic acid which is critical to the survival of cells.