Alexander Graham bell invented a device called Photophone, which could transmit voice on a light beam, in 1880. In the same year, William Wheeler invented a system of pipes which were lined with highly coating that gave light to homes by using light from electric arc lamp. In 1895, an attempt was made to invent television by using a bent glass rods to guide light by Henry Saint-Rene. Gradually for many years this method was used for various purposes and inventions like surgical lamp, transmitting images for television. In 1954, Van Heel covered a bare fibre with a transparent covering of a refractive index lower than that of the core and this prevented fibre reflection and thus prevented distortion and interference and also decreased the loss of
William Herschel discovered infrared radiation, and Johann Wilhelm Ritter discovered ultraviolet. Heinrich Hertz first produced radio waves based on Maxwell’s theories, and Wilhelm Röntgen discovered X-rays. In present time, electromagnetic radiation is important. It is commonly used in telecommunications, household appliances and also medical equipment. Even though electromagnetic radiation has its risks, technology is
Signing gates are more compact, but they come at a higher price. These types of gates are usually automated. They will cost between $2250 and $4000. Gate Material The material that your gate is made out of will influence the price significantly. If you want to save money, you can go with chain link, vinyl, or low-grade wood materials.
The longer it takes to get develop a new drug, the more money it will cost and if the drug ends up harming participants that test new drugs, that will be a lot of money down the drain. Also, there are chances the drug will have a low return on investments because of generic drugs that sell for cheaper. 3. What are the risks involved? There are many risks involved when dealing with pharmaceutical products.
Investment Plan and Cost Benefit Analysis Advertising companies are a service oriented setup. They require lesser capital investment than manufacturing setups as mainly, creative ideas drive growth, especially in the initial years of the formation of the company. Typically an investment plan is a function of the following variables: 1. The medium of advertisement: The medium of advertisement is an important consideration in the quantum of initial investment. For example, in billboards investment would be typically very high as the company would have to purchase the billboards which are costly.
However I must say that formal resources are not so easily acquired as compared to informal resources because they are often expensive especially on the side of legal resources because it is quiet expensive to consult the best lawyers. On the other hand I have to stipulate that although informal resources are easily accessible they may also not be reliable and sometimes burdensome as compared to formal resources.
The major disadvantages of TBMs is the upfront cost because they are expensive to construct and can be difficult to transport. Nonetheless, The advantages of using TBMs is to limiting the disturbance to the surrounding ground while drilling and producing a smooth tunnel wall with a high regard of safety measures. Besides, as modern tunnels become longer, the cost of tunnel boring machines compared to drill and blast is actually less, because of the advance technologies that is been put in to TBMs. TBMs also enhance the efficiency and the results while excavating with TBMs are much better than conventional methods in the way of how safe and quitter they are compared to other methods and that is why TBMs are more suitable to use in heavily urbanized areas. In general, tunnel boring machine is like a train that digs its own path.
The elements under electronic media are radio, recording and music, television and movie. Guglielmo Marconi, the “Father of Radio”, managed to send signals through air with his telegraph invention (Baran, 2009). Although the invention of telegraph was starting point for the communication but it was still under some limitations. However, Heinrich Hertz has brought the breakthrough for communication by discover radio waves which was very useful to transmit the message beyond the boundaries (Rodman, 2006). On the other hand contribution of electric is undeniable because it has contributed to the invention of radio whereby in 1880 electromagnetic spectrum was generated to transmit the radio waves with electricity (Rodman, 2006).
The disadvantages/cons of a hard engineering coastal management approach and their related structures are that they are generally expensive, last a limited amount of time, visually unattractive, unsustainable in some cases and they promote erosion in other areas further down the coast where these structures are noticeably absent. The advantages (pros) however, are that they generally absorb and deflect the impacts of waves very well (highly resistant) which significantly reduces coastland erosion; some are actually cheap and efficient structures for times when a quick fix is necessary to mitigate the impacts of erosion and flooding, and some also promote beach and/or cliff development. (“Internet Geography”,
Automation Disadvantages: Less Versatility – by having a machine that can only perform a particular task, this limits the flexibility and variety of tasks that a human labourer could do. More pollution – some types of machines operate using motors, fans etc. Some also use gases or chemicals in order to function. This will cause an increase in worldwide pollution. Large initial investment – automated machines can be one of the most costly operating systems in a company.