The second Red Scare was a time period where government officials were questioned whether they had Communist affiliations. To eradicate the security threats in the government, President Truman issued Executive Order 9835 to search out “infiltration of disloyal persons.” This action caused the investigation of people like Alger Hiss and other suspected Communists. The government along with the citizens set up effective ways, Blacklists, to bar Communists from getting hired for work. In 1950, Red Channels, a book that exposed 151 writers, actors, musicians, and other radio and television entertainers as Communists, was published. This book completely devastated the people on the list and placed these people on Blacklists.
So people like writers, intellectuals, and artists are a major threat to Stalin. They could try to sway public opinion of Stalin being a perfect man through their works. So Stalin censored their work and arrested them. The poet Osip Mandelstam was one such writer and was arrested for reciting his famous anti-Stalin poem Stalin Epigram to his circle of friends in 1934. Another example would be theatre director Vsevolod Meyerhold who was arrested in 1939 and shot in February 1940 for supposedly spying for Japanese and British intelligence.
The Salem Witchcraft Trials had many effects on the town of Salem, Massachusetts. A lot of the effects were negative, destroying the community, government, even individuals. The Witch Trials affected the community of Salem in multiple ways. The witch trials created many tensions between several families in the town. The most acknowledgeable dispute from the play was between the Putnam’s and the Nurse’s.
For example, Joseph McCarthy can be compared to Reverend Parris in how they both lead the people into the belief that there were intruders in their mists that had plans to sabotage the community. The Salem Witch Trials accusing others of a feared crime showed definite evidence that mass hysteria was to blame. Salem was a religious settlement, following Puritan beliefs (Miller, 6). A large fear for everyone in Salem was the touch of the Devil (Miller, Arthur). According to Puritan beliefs, if a man or woman was touched by the Devil he would convince them to do witchcraft.
“Why Satan 's Character in Paradise Lost Is the Original Antihero.” America Magazine, 24 Oct. 2017,www.americamagazine.org/arts-culture/2017/10/19/ why-satans-character-paradise-lost-original-antihero. Shawcross, John T. “An Early View of Satan as Hero of Paradise Lost.” Milton Quarterly, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1 Oct. 1998, muse.jhu.edu/article/23618. Smith, Jennifer. Paradise Lost and Beowulf: The Christian/Pagan Hybrids of the Epic Tradition, web.csulb.edu/~jsmith10/miltbeow.htm. Ward, Dee Ann Duke.
Arthur Miller wrote The Crucible in 1953, as a response to McCarthyism, which is, in general, accusing people of crimes with little to no proof. It ran rampant through the United States during the Second Red Scare through the early 1950s (exactly when Arthur Miller wrote The Crucible). In The Crucible, Miller juxtaposes the leaders, who rationally think for themselves, and the followers, who believe what everybody else believes, through irony, imagery, and denotation. The Crucible is riddled with irony, and Arthur Miller utilizes situational and dramatic irony to show the difference between followers and leaders. When John Proctor admits his adultery, the Court asks him to sign a confession, and John Proctor declines.
Salem was surprised and scared of what happened during the 1690’s. Rosalyn Schanzer wrote the book Witches! The Absolutely True Tale of Disaster in Salem, which is a book that describes the life in Salem during the witch trials. The witch trials was a period of time when people accused others for being witches and using witchcraft. It was a devastating time for the Puritans.
The Crucible by Arthur Miller is about the corruption, lying, strict actions of the Salem witchcraft trials in Salem, Massachusetts. Miller was inspired to write this play to relate to the era of McCarthyism during the 1950’s that he and American citizens were experiencing. In the 1950’s Joseph McCarthy starting accusing public figures of being guilty of treason by supporting the communist party (of Russia). But McCarthy had no physical proof or evidence that suggested his wild accusations. The accusations caused havoc in America, hundreds imprisoned, and thousands to lose their job.
Convict communists were ordered to confess their crime and name others to avoid the retribution. The new decision led to a cyclone of accusations because people realized the possibility of their condemnation regardless they were guilty or innocent. Many helped that system by untrue confessions to save their lives. Miller, among others, refused to surrender to questioning. People who were revealed communists suffered greatly (Bly 2-5).
Stalin would have a large secret police forces, spies and informers everywhere. Children were quizzed on their parents to see if they were good communists. He was ruthless with political opponents, purged all people who might have been a threat within his party. Furthermore, government would control all newspapers and radio stations, churches were closed and religious, religion was replaced by belief in communism. He would show lovely posters for people to think that he is the best.
Sam Robert’s article, “A Decade of Fear” explains how McCarthyism turned Americans against each other after World War 2. In the first place he lied about communists being in the U.S. senate. As stated in Sam Robert’s article, “News of McCarthy’s accusations against the state dept. of president Harry Truman sent shock waves across the nation.” McCarty’s statements made him look like a gallant anticommunist and gave him power. As a matter of fact, he was considered more of a witch hunter.
West 's Encyclopedia of American Law. 2005. Retrieved May 01, 2016 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G2-3437701425.html “Felon Voting.” ProCon. 2008. May 01, 2016 from ProCon.org: http://felonvoting.procon.org/view.answers.php?questionID=000668 “Felon voting rights.” National Confederence of State.
If denied these accusations you were blacklisted. When you are blacklisted this meant for many that their promising careers would terminate. The Crucible is a story about a town accusing people of being witches if you were found to be a “witch” you were hang. After learning about McCarthyism, it is apparent that people had many ulterior motives for their actions, also conflicts and groups of people become apparent. McCarthyism shed light to my eyes that there was more to Salem.
U.S. Government Surveillance and the Women 's Liberation Movement, 1968-1973: A Case Study. Retrieved April 15, 2017, from http://eds.a.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.dacc-ad.nmsu.edu:2048/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=3ae8c666-8837-4c8e-99a9-dcb3e121abc0%40sessionmgr4009&vid=4&hid=4205 Soghoian, C. (2016, June). Retrieved April 19, 2017, from