The first stage includes hemostasis and inflammation, which occurs soon after the damage of skin. Fibrinogen is one of the major components of the skin connective tissues, leads to the coagulation of exudates, and together with the formation of a fibrin network, produces a clot in the wound which stops. Therefore, both hemostasis and inflammatory stages play an important role in the healing process of a wound. The inflammatory phase occurring simultaneously with the hemostasis phase usually takes more than 24 h. At this stage, blood neutrophils followed by phagocytes enter the wound medium and penetrate inside the dead cells. In the migratory phase, the new and live cells called epithelial move towards skin injury to replace dead cells.
These stages make up a complex healing process that must be aligned correctly to rebuild the tissue integrity. Inflammation happens when the skin is injured and up to 24 hours afterwards. The immune system reacts to fight off infection and expedite the healing process and coagulation occurs to establish hemostasis. The regeneration phase starts to restore skin integrity with the renovation of new blood cells (Bronneke, 2015). This process is called angiogenesis and is significant to this process.
Both complete and partial atrioventricular septal defects can be repaired by surgery. During the surgery, the doctor will both close the hole in the heart’s chambers and reconstruct the valves that have been damaged. The hole is closed during the procedure by applying one or two patches to the septum. These patches will become a permanent fixture of the heart’s septum, as eventually, the lining of the heart will grow over the patches. The mitral valve is also reconstructed during surgery either by repairing it or, if needed, replacing it so that the valve will close tightly enough to regulate the blood flow.
Regenerative medicine refers to the repair of, or the replacement of organs, cells and tissues in a human system. This will be done to tissues, cells or organs that have been damaged by disease, trauma or being damaged over extended periods of time. There are several ways to repair the organs, tissues or cells but the most promising way of doing this is with stem cell therapy. Regeneration and therefore revitalisation of these organs, tissues or cells can and should be done as they get worn-out, using stem cell therapy to carry out the restoration. The definition of worn-out is: damaged to the point of no longer being usable.
After treatment there is a local inflammatory reaction (chemical phlebitis) that causes the closing and re-absorption of the varicose. The sclerotherapy, also used in the case of groups of capillaries, can be performed in medical surgery without anesthesia. • Laser surgery- laser treatments allow you to intervene on smaller varicose veins. With the laser surgery is obtained by the closure of the vein that gradually tends to disappear. • Radiofrequency ablation- Usually it used for larger varicose veins.
After the atrioventricular node is destroyed a pacemaker is then put into place in order to allow the continuation of electrical impulse to the ventricles. Another surgery that can be done is a surgical maze procedure. In this procedure the doctors makes several small cuts on specific areas of the heart. When these cuts heal the form scar tissues. Scar tissues are fibrosis tissues meaning that they doesn’t carry out the function of the tissues that they are replacing they are simply there to bind the tissues together.
E.g. 99mTc-tetrofosmin (Myoview, GE healthcare), 99mTc-sestamibi (Cardiolite, Bristol-Myers Squibb now Lantheus Medical Imaging). Following this, the heart rate is raised to induce myocardial stress, either by exercise or pharmacologically with adenosine, dobutamine or dipyridamole (aminophylline can be used to reverse the effects of
LITERATURE REVIEW TREATMENT: Bracing, Crutches and Rehabilitation Once an anterior cruciate ligament has been injured, treatment has to be carried out as soon as possible. Due to the location of the ACL (at the level of the knee) it poses significant problems for activities of daily life such as walking, climbing and sitting. Depending on the severity of the injury, an ACL reconstruction surgery may be performed. During this reconstructive operation, the deficient ligament is repaired using a tendon graft. In most cases the hamstring will be used for the tendon graft (Mannel, Marin, Claes & Durselen, 2004).
In order to produce this tissue, fibroblasts are sent to the site of the injury where they begin to construct a new collagen matrix, which acts as a framework for which the new tissue cells can grow on to, and into which a new network of blood vessels form, a process known as
The stem cells of epithelium must detach from the edges of the wound and migrate into wound. Normally dermal basal cells adhere to each other and to the underline basal layer of the dermis. Following mobilization, epithelial cells begin to enlarge and migrate down and across the wound. Transected hair follicles also contribute to the number of migrating epithelial cells. Epithelial cell migrating across wound usually move along the basal lamina or fibrin deposits, this phenomenon is called contact guidance and is an important factor in epithelial migration.