C=1- ρο/ρα ………………………………………………. (Equation 6) The Kawakita plots of P/C against P were established. The slope of the plot represents the a value, which reflects the total volume reduction for the powder bed (compressibility) constant b reflects the plasticity of the powder. Elastic Recovery N. A. Armstrong and R. F. Haines-Nutt, Elastic recovery and surface area changes in compacted powder systems, J. Pharm. Pharmacol.
Keywords: Ketoconazole, Antifungal agents, Optimization, Baker Lonsdale model, Peppas model, Higuchi plot INTRODUCTION The main objective was to design diffusion controlled microsphere drug delivery system of ketoconazole in order to sustain the delivery of the drug and thereby reduce the gastrointestinal disturbances and dose related adverse effects like hepatic dysfunction and allergic reactions as observed with conventional oral dosage form of ketoconazole (tablet). Ketoconazole microspheres prepared using dichloromethane, one of the class II solvents proposed in ICH guidelines (Q3C) to be used in the pharmaceutical industry because of their low toxic potential, as the coacervating agent to reduce residual solvent. MATERIALS
When heated, the liquid forces the gas to and vapor out of the flask through the tiny hole until the pressure inside the flask and the external pressure is equal. Then the initial volume of the flask was measured. The temperature is measured through the temperature in the boiling water bath. The experimental value of the molar mass is closely identical to the theoretical value of the molar mass of ethanol, thus it was assumed that the unknown liquid that was used in the experiment is ethanol. The probable sources of error are the following: the size of the hole in the aluminum foil, which may affect the amount of liquid forces and vapor that exits the flask, the temperature was not kept constant, which may affect the amount of vapor, and the measurement of initial volume of the flask, which can affect the calculation for the experimental value and the actual volume of the gas.
This method was also validated for linearity, accuracy, precision, selectivity, sensitivity and degradation studies according to the ICH guidelines. 4.1 EXPERIMENTAL 4.1.1 Chemicals and Reagents Pure samples and formulations - emtricitabine, tenofovir and efavirenz.O-phosphoric acid (H3PO4) and Methanol were used HPLC Grade. Milli-Q-Water resistivity 18.2MΩ×cm was generated from a Milli-Q-Water purification system was used for preparation of aqueous solutions. 4.1.2 Equipment The HPLC
((Love J). sodium picosulphate in combination with magnesium citrate has synergistic effects. As mentioned earlier, sodium picosulphate has purgative actions, while magnesium citrate (osmotic laxative) reacts with water thereby retaining fluids in the colon. By these dual mechanisms sodiumpicoslphate/magnesium citrate exerts its bowel cleansing effects. Various clinical studies evaluated its efficacy in comparison with other bowel preparation agents: • In a randomized, multicentre, assessor-blinded, prespecified non-inferiority, head to head study, bowel cleansing effects of sodium picosulphate/magnesium citrate were compared with that of 2L polyethylene glycol solution and two 5-mg bisacodyl tablets.
3. Effect of varying stirring speed. 5.3.1 Effect of varying polymer concentration NLCs were prepared by method reported in section 5.2.1 by using varying stearic acid : Oleic acid concentration viz. 1:1, 2:1, 3:1 and 4:1 mg while other variables were kept constant. The effect of varying stearic acid concentration on the particle size and drug entrapment efficiency are reported in Table 5.1 and shown in Fig.
ABSTRACT Floating bioadhesive tablets of hydrochlorthiazide were developed to prolong gastric residence time leading to an increase in drug bioavailability. Tablets are prepared by direct compression technique using polymers Xanthum gum, Chitosan, Eudragit L- 100, Magnesium stearate USP-NF (Avicel PH 102), Microcrystalline cellulose Ph 102, Talc, Microcrystalline cellulose Ph 102 and sodium bicarbonate. Tablets were evaluated for their physical characteristics viz., hardness, thickness, friability and weight variation, drug content and floating properties. Gas generating agent plays an important role in floating lag time and drug release. The best formulation subjected for kinetic treatment.
This is of particular relevance during powder mixing, filling of capsules with powders or granules, and filling of dies during tableting operation . The compaction properties of pharmaceutical formulations can be studied experimentally using a variety of techniques, ranging from instrumented production presses to compaction stimulators . A compaction equation relates some measure of the state of consolidation of a powder, such as porosity, volume or relative volume, density or void ratio, with a function of the compaction pressure. The initial purpose of fitting experimental data to an equation is usually to linearise the plots so as to make comparison easier between different sets of data . The relationship between volume and applied pressure during compression is the main approach used in deriving a mathematical representation of the compression process .
2.1 DRUG PROFILE 2.1.1 Betamethasone Valerate INTRODUCTION Name Betamethasone Valerate Official in Indian Pharmacopiea, British Pharmacopiea, United state Pharmacopiea Approval Status CDSCO - 2001 Description A glucocorticoid given orally, parenterally, by local injection, by inhalation or applied topically in the management of various disorders in which corticosteroids are indicated. Its lack of mineralo corticoid properties makes betamethasone particularly suitable for treating cerebral edema and congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Structure CAS no 2152445 Solubility Freely soluble in chloroform; soluble in ethanol (95 per cent); practically insoluble in water and in light petroleum.
Chapter3. AIMS AND OBJCETIVE OF THE STUDY The Project is aimed at development of mucoadhesive drug delivery system of antihypertensive drugs diltiazem hydrochloride and nifedipine respectively. These drugs are selected on the fact that both drugs are having short half life, both undergoes hepatic metabolism at the same time both gets absorbed from gastrointestinal tract rapidly, though diltiazem hydrochloride is hydrophilic and nifedipine is hydrophilic. Marketed formulations are available in the form of sustained release tablets capsules. So alternative drug delivery system can serve the purpose of delivering the drug at a particular site and which can bring about slow release and improved bioavailability may be achieved is needed .