Ethical Issues Of Abortion

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Introduction:
Medically abortion is defined as a pregnancy loss that occurs at least than 20 weeks of gestation. Abortion is calcified into: spontaneous abortion and induced abortion.
- Spontaneous abortion (miscarriage) is occurs in the absence of any medical or surgical intervention, which is not our focus in this paper.
- On the other hand induced abortion is the medical or surgical termination of pregnancy typically before the time of fetal viability. (1)
Ethically the induced abortion is an ancient issue that has an old debate about being morally right or wrong. The ethical debate concerning abortion is a confliction between autonomy (of the mother) and rights (of the mother and the unborn child). The ethical debate of this issue mainly
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In 2013 he abortion rate was 12.5 abortions per 1,000 women, and the abortion ratio was 200 abortions per 1,000 live births. Compared with 2012 the reported abortions in 2013 decreased by 5%. Moreover, from 2004–2013, the rate, number, and ratio of reported abortions decreased 20%, 21%, and 17%, respectively. (2)

Discussion:
People who believe that abortion is immoral call themselves as pro-life. They believe that human life begins at conception and based on generally contend that abortion is morally wrong because it kills human life. Hippocrates considered termination of pregnancy as unethical. Hippocrates believes whether fetus in womb has rights to live before viability. In any condition the embryo or fetus of any age is protected by Hippocratic code. “I will maintain the utmost respect for human life, from the time of conception.”
Most of the opposed of abortion argue based on the following concept:
1- A Fetus has the right to be considered as human being.
2- It is morally wrong to kill an innocent human being.
3- Aborting is an example of killing and terminating a human being’s life. So, being engaged in aborting is morally
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A congenital anomaly is defined as an abnormality of structure, function or body metabolism that is present at birth and results in physical or mental disability, or is fatal. Differed group of congenital anomalies discovered at different time of pregnancy but most of them are early discovered if the mother is monitoring her pregnancy very early. The choice to terminate the congenital anomalies is another issue because it raises a heated debate regarding a malformed fetus still exists or not and whether it is considered as human being has the right to live or it is merciful for him to end its life. A review of 20 studies found overall termination rates following antenatal diagnosis of congenital malformation, are as follows: Down’s syndrome (92%), Spina bifida (64%), Anencephaly (84%), Turner syndrome (72%), and Klinefelter syndrome (58%). (11) This topic need another paper to discuss about. Usually the dissension is differed from country to another. It is permitted on differing grounds in different countries, depending on: Type of malformation, Gestational age at diagnosis, Abortion
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