The first topic in philosophical ethics I would like to discuss is Aristotle’s virtue ethics. As an objectionist, Aristotle tried to determine what a good person is. To Aristotle, happiness is what made you a good person, and that is what the chief goal in life is. He believed that happiness was achieved when a species determines its’ own telos, or purpose. Along with that, Aristotle determined three facts of humanity.
In this section I would like to compare two different approaches of the before mentioned concepts of ethics and desire. The first theme that I started my paper with is ethics. Both Levinas and Aristotle in their philosophies strove for the higher good, which for one of them was represented by happiness and for another by the notion of G-d. In their perception this higher good is the eternal truth and understanding of the world. For Levinas, however, the ‘good’ is infinite in a sense that it is not concerned in what is common among all things, but what is entirely unique about each person or thing.
Both Aristotle and Thomas Hill believe that human virtue not only has the power to control our actions positively or negatively but can also influence whether human beings are likely to preserve our environment. It is essential to understand Aristotle’s ethical reasoning on human virtues to begin to understand why he would believe human action would lead to preservation of the environment. Aristotle first begins to explain his ethical reasoning by explaining happiness. Aristotle states that “Every art and every inquiry, and similarly every action and pursuit, is thought to aim at some good; and for this reason the good has rightly been declared to be that at which all things aim” (Aristotle, Ethics, 1094a, 1-3). Aristotle explains that all human being’s actions should have the aim toward some good and further explains that the highest ends human beings can and should aim for must be aimed toward the
Virtue ethics is nowadays one of three main approaches in standard ethics. It might, at first, be recognized as the one that stresses the virtues, or moral character. Virtue ethics is a comprehensive term for theories that stress the part of character. Virtue ethics not just related with the rightness or wrongness of individual activities, it gives direction as to the kind of features and conducts a decent individual will look for to accomplish. In that way, virtue ethics is concerned with the entire of someone 's life, instead of particular scenes or activities.
When it comes to Aristotle he has a particular theory on prudence as a virtue of thought. He believes that prudence which requires virtue is knowledge of what is just. It involves good deliberation focused on human good and helping human concerns universally, ultimately living well in general. So, a person who is prudent shall grasp the truth. With that being said even though prudence is necessary, it is not sufficient for a virtuous life.
Happiness on the other hand is an act. Pleasure according to Aristotle is a positive thing that is as a result of another act. This then points out that pleasure cannot be sought. In fact, the person who has attained moral virtue and is hence happiness is the standard measure of what is good pleasure and what is bad
At the end, the important thing is that your choice is based on what you consider is ethical and what you think is correct. But the ancient philosophers had another definition. In the book, The Republic, Platon talks about justice, order and the character of the just. When Socrates asks them, what is Justice? he wants to convince himself that justice is good and beneficial for society.
After reading Nicomachean ethics, Book ll, my main conclusion of it is that us as humans are better off being virtuous than simply doing what we feel like doing at any moment in time. In Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics, Book ll, he explains that virtue is a habit of right action, formed by acting rightly (Nicomachean Ethics, p. 71). What he means by this is that everyone has the chance to act virtuously, but we must for work at doing what is right. Aristotle thought we should be virtuous because if we live virtuously than we will have a better life over
He believes that happiness is achieved through a life full of virtue as well as the expansion of reason and the ability of greater wisdom. This is why we take various actions, to ensure enough outer goods to obtain health, leisure time and the ability to have virtue in our lifespan. Furthermore, another point Aristotle emphasizes, is that moral virtue is located somewhere between extremes and deficiency. That’s where the Greek saying “παν μετρον αριστον” comes from, meaning everything is good but don’t over or under do it. Keep everything in moderation, except virtue.
8) Kant states that if Gods doesn’t exist, then the universe is incomplete immoral, due to that virtue will be unrewarded and wickedness will not be punished. 9) Hobbes argues that ethics is a result from when people come to realize what they must do to live as best as they are able to. 10) Rachels continues to state that a supportive society can only exist if we come to adopt certain aspects